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Using McNemars test for the direction of the change, the intervention group moved to a more favorable status pcO. OOl compared to the 35 Control group that did not move. Thus, the authors feel that CT may have potential to provide inoculation against future smoking, if by nothing more than allowing the children to express that this is an option.

Similar positive changes p detected for intervention subjects but not control subjects in their responses to items assessing self-efficacy to refuse a cigarette offered by a friend and knowledge of the addictiveness of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco i. In summary, this interactive, Internet-based curriculum tailors information and discussions about tobacco use.

Student smoking status is assessed throughout the program and responsive audio messages to the student user are made by the virtual host to reinforce nonsmoking behavior, encourage self-examination of smoking behavior and attitudes, and discourage smoking. Since CT has not been fully tested, this may influence its adoption. All of the above curricula are based on scientifically demonstrated prevention principles and have been or are being tested in the classroom.

Despite positive findings and the subsequent availability of effective tobacco use prevention curricula, there remains a significant problem with tobacco use among young people. Identifying the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors related to adoption of tobacco prevention curricula could help mitigate this seemingly intractable problem. When exploring the school context of tobacco use and tobacco use curriculum and policies within Colorado schools, a recently completed focus group study of Colorado school principals Rocky Mountain Center, disclosed the following themes: 36!

CSAP Colorado Student Assessment Program has a strong influence on all school decisions This is a state required testing program that imposes perform ancestandardsoneveryColoradoschool,with tiestofundingifstandardsare not met. Internet Use Among Youth While the identification of effective intervention strategies to prevent youth tobacco use is an important research step, successful implementation of effective strategies is ultimately dependent on effective diffusion of interventions to schools and communities.

One promising strategy for dissemination is delivery of tobacco prevention learning experiences via the World Wide Web or the Internet. The Internet is fast becoming a universally available tool that teens use regularly for their schoohvork. It also holds great potential since access to this tool is not confined to the school classroom and it has potential to reach teens where they live and play.

Identification of the barriers to implementation of Web-based curricula should be of value to our schools and public health. I 37 The Internet has become an important learning tool for teens and recognized as a valuable learning resource by parents.

The PEW researchers working on this study reported that there was a substantial disconnect between how students use the Internet for school and how students use the Internet during the school day and under teacher direction. They found that students educational use of the Internet occurs outside of the school day, outside of the school building, and outside of the direction of their teachers.

A few of the factors students attributed to this disconnect were: The quality of student Internet-based assignments was poor and uninspiring; 38 School administrators set the tone for Internet use at school. Policy choicesby those vvhorunschoolsystemshaveresultedindifferentschoolshaving differentlevelsofaccesstothelntemet. These barriers, while significant now, if not addressed soon will become even more pronounced as broadband connections become more commonplace and more students become online users.

Internet-based assignments will need to be compelling and inspire student learning. Administrators will need to become better informed about the technical and administrative barriers to effective use of the Web in schools. Change agents will need to know how to effectively deliver and disseminate Web-based tools to schools and school districts.

Other research findings indicate that use of Web technology in the educational environment can be effective in changing health practices. In a study of a Web-based computer-tailored, nutrition education program, changes in student determinants of behavior were found Oenema, If the Internet is to become an effective 1 39 teaching tool for classroom teachers, then research needs to expand so that knowledge of effective dissemination and instructional strategies continues to develop.

Use of the Internet, like other communication media, has both benefits and liabilities. Its primary benefit for adolescents who are seeking health-related information may be the anonymity that is afforded by an interactive computer environment. Overall, While not tested in this study, disclosing health behaviors, especially those that are known to be socially undesirable, in an interactive computer environment, like that provided by CT, may be easier for some adolescents than talking wfith health care providers or parents.

Computers and Internet Access in Colorado Schools A national market research study conducted during school year found that the computer-to-student ratio for Colorado schools was only slightly above the national average. There was one computer for every 5. These ratios compare favorably to California schools, where the ratio was little more than one computer for every 8 students, but unfavorably to Wyoming schools, where the ratio was one computer to 3.

In conclusion, with this literature review as the knowledge and conceptual bases for this research, I pursued the identification of factors that promoted and impeded adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Web-based tobacco education and prevention curriculum entitled Consider This.

Identification of the determinants of Internet program usage in the classroom was done in the context of theoretical approaches to communications and behavior change. DOI identified the communications context for dissemination and adoption of CT. The teacher curriculum adoption process is described using DOI constructs relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, adoption, dissemination, and maintenance. Individual and environmental behavioral factors associated with adoption of Consider This are described with constructs from the PRECEDE model predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors.

Diffusion of Innovations Given that an innovation exists, communication must take place if the innovation is to spread. Everett M. Rogers, Rogers, , p. Understanding and influencing the decision-making process can help expedite adoption and influence the survival of an innovation. New ideas or innovations often do not survive because financial support for the idea is not sustained sufficiently for the innovation to be accepted within a social system.

Understanding the diffusion process, its barriers, and how it is enabled is especially important if the innovation is to be accepted and this acceptance sustained. Understanding the factors that influence diffusion of Consider This e. Diffusion of Innovations theory provides a framework for identifying effective approaches for disseminating the Consider This program.

DOI holds that several characteristics of an innovation affect its adoption Buller, Rogers He defines communication as a process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding Rogers, , p. Rogers contends that diffusion is a special type of communication in that the messages are concerned with new ideas.

It is the newness or uncertainty of the idea that makes diffusion a unique type of communication. The following discussion of these elements in the context of the innovation that is the focus of this research helped inform the study design and instrumentation used to gather data. Innovation Traits Rogers contends that if the idea seems new to the individual, then it is an innovation.

Newness of an idea may be expressed in terms of knowledge, persuasion, or a decision to adopt. The perceived traits of an innovation or idea thus influences how quickly a new idea is tried and adopted. Rogers makes a distinction between hardware and software innovations, two broad innovation traits. Hardware innovations are equipment or tools, and software innovations are the information base for the tool.

Schools have been using personal computers for approximately 20 years, and some school personnel had access to computers long before personal computers were introduced. In the strictest sense of Rogers definition of hardware a tool that contains the technology as a material or physical object , we could also define the Internet as the hardware that embodies the Consider This software. Without the availability of computer hardware, diffusion of this innovation would not be possible.

Therefore, the most important trait of this innovation is that it is dependent on the availability of and access to personal computers. Much of Rogers research has been in the domain of technology. An important observation of his that is relevant to this study is included: A technological innovation usually has some degree of benefit for its potential adopters. This advantage is not always very clear-cut, at least not to the intended adopters. They are seldom certain that an innovation represents a superior alternative to the previous practice that it might replace.

In the case of the CT innovation, teachers and other school personnel, as the potential adopters, may be uncertain about the benefit that an Internet-based tobacco education curriculum might provide over a traditional document-based, classroom curriculum. In the strictest sense of the term, the only potential adopters of the CT curriculum are teachers.

They are the only subgroup of school employees who have routine access to the classroom the environment where it is implemented and to the students who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the innovation. Those attributes are described here: 1. Relative Advantage The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supercedes; 2. Compatibility The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with existing values, past experiences, and the needs of potential adopters; 3.

Complexity The degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use; 4. Trialability The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis; and 5. Observability The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.

Innovations that have the above five qualities more relative advantage, a high degree of compatibility, trialability, observability, and less complexity are more likely to have higher rates of adoption. Specific innovation attributes of the CT curriculum as perceived by the teacher participants in this study are described in the qualitative portion of this dissertation. Communication Channels Communication channels, another element of the diffusion process, are the means by which messages about an innovation get from one person to another.

Mass media and interpersonal communications are the two principal means by which information is transmitted. Mass media channels involve radio, television, 46 newspapers, mass mailings, etc. Interpersonal channels involve face-to-face interactions between two or more persons.

The quality and effectiveness of communications transmitted through these two channels are influenced by the principle of homophily, i. Homophilous individuals share personal and social characteristics, attribute similar meanings to things and ideas, and share a mutual subcultural language. In contrast, persons who are heterophilous do not share these characteristics.

Time The innovation-decision process is one that is measured in part by time. Time represents a the period between an individuals initial knowledge of an innovation to the moment of adoption or rejection, b the relative earliness or lateness of an innovation being adopted, and c the rate of adoption of an innovation in a social system. The innovation-decision process consists of five steps: a knowledge when an individual or decision-making unit learns of an innovation; b persuasion when individual or unit forms a favorable or unfavorable opinion on the innovation; c decision when an individual engages in activities that lead to adoption or rejection of the innovation; d implementation when the individual puts the innovation into practice; and e confirmation when the individual realizes reinforcement of an innovation-decision.

Time is an important dimension explaining the innovation-decision process. Broad steps or markers of the CT curriculum adoption process were identified in both 47 the survey and interview portions of this investigation to help characterize the rate of adoption. Social Systems A social system is a set of inter-related units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal.

Characteristics of social systems therefore affect diffusion. More specifically, within a social system the roles of opinion leaders and change agents, social norms that relate to, enable or constrain adoption of an innovation, and the types and consequences of an innovation all affect diffusion. Formal and informal social systems within schools and school districts affect the rate and breadth of diffusion.

The formal systems are those that are created by management and administration of a school district or school. The informal systems are those that are established through inter-personal communications. The communication structure patterned communication flow within and among schools and between school and district administrators determines who interacts with whom and under what circumstances. Understanding the dynamics of the social system and its communication structure helps define the diffusion process and its predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors.

Norms, or social standards, are cultural models shared by individuals in a social system which communicate to individuals what behaviors are expected and 48 desired. Norms therefore are often powerful factors in the diffusion process. Personal innovativeness or adopter categories help classify members of a social system according to their willingness or tendency to adopt new ideas Rogers, The adopter categories are as follows: Innovators Persons or decision-making bodies who are venturesome.

Their interest in new ideas tends to lead them outside of their peer networks and into a more cosmopolitan circle. They serve a gatekeeper role in the flow of new ideas into a system. Early adopters Persons who are respected and are more integrated or active within their local social system. They have the greatest degree of opinion leadership within the social system. Ideally change agents would seek them out to help promote acceptance of a new idea or innovation.

Early majority Persons who adopt new ideas just before the average member of a system. They interact frequently with their peers and represent approximately one-third of the social system Rogers, Late majority Persons who adopt new ideas just after the average person in a social system. Laggards Persons who are last in a social system to adopt an idea. They are near isolates within the social networks of their system and tend to be suspicious of new ideas or innovations. Figure 3. The CT innovation development stage the first step in the social change process took place in at The Cooper Institute.

Other Human Elements of the Diffusion Process The following two human roles are key catalysts in the diffusion process. Opinion Leaders Individuals who are able to influence informally, in a desired way and with relative frequency, other individuals attitudes and behaviors.

Change Agents Individuals who influence clients innovation-decisions in a direction deemed desirable by the agency they represent. Note: Change agents usually use opinion leaders as their lieutenants or champions in diffusion campaigns. Summary of Diffusion of Innovations Constructs Table 3. Table 3. Pro-innovation bias implies that the innovation should be diffused and adopted by all members of a social system, that it should be diffused more rapidly, and that it should not be re-invented or rejected.

Individual blame bias holds that an individual is responsible for his or her problems, rather than the social system of which he or she is a part. Recall problem bias is a bi-product of the research process itself and results when individuals are asked to remember the time when they adopted a new idea or innovation. Issue of equality bias is concerned with the consequences of an innovation and how the benefits of that innovation distribute within a social system.

I observed all of these biases. For example, during the course of teacher interviews in this study, I noted the tendency of teachers to offer only positive remarks about their experiences with the adoption of the CT curriculum. In other words, they tended to share only their successes with implementation of this innovation. They seemed more reluctant to offer descriptions of the problems they encountered unless they were prompted.

This is an example of pro-innovation bias or social desirability bias. Teachers also tended to accept blame for not having successfully implemented CT in their classes. Some would make self-effacing comments about their limited experience with or knowledge of computer technology, when, in fact, the limitations of their Internet connections may have precluded successful implementation.

These self-effacing comments were sometimes made despite their knowledge of the Internet connection limitation. Rogers suggests alternative research approaches e. Recall bias will need to be accounted for by inquiries that explore the continued dissemination of CT during the school year. Another criticism of diffusion research is that the predominant focus of diffusion studies has been on successful diffusion events and that events where diffusion was unsuccessful have not been studied Henrich, This study effectively addressed this criticism when the design was expanded to include participants from school districts where CT may not have been implemented at all.

See Chapter 4 for a detailed discussion. Related Diffusion Research Similar to Roger's theoretical perspective is one that focuses on the transformation processes that move organizations towards change or adoption of new instructional innovations Kershaw, This three-step process is centered on individual behaviors. First, individuals must recognize that there is an urgent need for change in the organization. Second, individuals must come to understand that they themselves must change.

Finally, they must realize that they need to change the way they perform their roles in the organization. This model characterizes early adopters as techies' who experiment with every new technology that comes along.

Mainstream faculty tends to focus more on problems, processes, and tasks at hand than on the tools that might be used to address them, and they prefer incremental change. The Geoghegan model suggests that early adopters are often poor change agents due to their lack of focus on process. Their success in using technology to bring about qualitative improvements in teaching and learning, and the visibility that can accompany such success, can have an alienating effect on others.

It can foster a belief that most faculty members should be using technology and that greater access to technology and training is a prerequisite to success Geoghegan, TAM predicts that user acceptance of any technology is determined by: 1 Perceived usefulness The degree to which a person believes that the use of the new technology will enhance his or her performance; and 2 Perceived ease of use The degree to which a person believes the new technology will be free of effort.

Perceived usefulness is comparable to Rogers' construct of relative advantage, and the perceived ease of use is comparable to his idea of complexity. This very simplified two-dimensional model does not acknowledge the complexities of adoption behavior, whereas DOI includes a broader range of constructs such as compatibility, observability, and trialability as adoption characteristics.

In contrast to the TAM model, Reeves describes a more complex model that seeks to explain significant pedagogical dimensions of computer-based learning. This model describes fourteen pedagogical dimensions of computer- based education CBE in an effort to provide improved criteria for understanding, describing and evaluating CBE. While these dimensions were identified as evaluative factors, they are suggestive of factors that may contribute to diffusion of CBE. These factors are in the philosophical, teacher, student and technical domains.

Some of these dimensions or factors and their definitions validated adoption factors identified in the analysis of the observation and interview data collected in this study. For example, learner control was a factor that students and teachers liked about CT.

Students liked that they could direct their choices from various CT learning modules with the click of a mouse. Teachers liked that their students could move through the program at their own pace. A study of the introduction of integrated learning systems 1LS into schools suggests five stages of teacher participation in the implementation of ILS Clariana, These are: Novice, non-participatory, where a teacher drops off a class at the ILS computer laboratory; Novice participatory, where the teacher attends the classes but does not know ILS; Practitioner, where the teacher uses ILS progress reports to help pupils by remediation or re-teaching; 56 Integrator, who manipulates the ILS sequence so that it better matches the classroom instruction; and Extender, who has fully integrated the ILS into classroom curricula.

This teacher classification system suggests that teachers be extenders because they are required to be in the classroom when students were logged onto CT and to integrate it into their broader health-education curricula. One on-line discussion of the diffusion of technology in K education focused on cost and instructional strategies Recesso. Using Rogers' DOI model and a cost analysis model, the discussants concluded that the widespread use of interface technology would result in low per student costs.

To accomplish widespread use of technology it identified that teacher effectiveness is an integral issue related to the development and implementation of a technology-based interface. One discussant stated that The drive to create this tool a technology-based interface makes the assumption that teachers are also technologists While the CT curriculum does not require that teachers be designers or developers of technology, it does require that they, to some extent, be content experts and, to a greater extent, that they be facilitators of the learning experience.

This online discussion concluded that successful classroom use of a technology-based learner interface would have to overcome barriers presented by teacher training, costs, and providing a system conducive to facilitating effective 57 instruction.

Because training was provided to teachers who were participants in this study, the effectiveness of that training was examined in this investigation. Relevance of Diffusion of Innovations School tobacco education programs like CT are an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control program CDC, However, knowledge of effective school-based strategies to influence adolescents on important health topics, such as tobacco use, will have little or no impact if they are not effectively disseminated to teachers and school officials.

Computer-assisted instruction has been used in schools for several years now. However, use of programs delivered over the Internet is still novel Buller, Thus, in DOI terms, teachers who are currently using the Internet as an instructional tool are likely to be either early adopters or early majority users of computer-based instructional tools. The DOI model postulates that early users are apt to be attuned to communications from individuals and groups outside of their informal social environment e.

It is reasonable to expect then that direct marketing of the CT program and its computer based attributes by outside entities such as the developers of CT would reach early adopting schools and teachers and induce them to learn more about and use the CT program. New adopters look to earlier adopters for evidence that an Internet-based program is feasible and effective in the classroom. These adopters depend on teachers who are opinion leaders for information about the Consider This program.

Identification and understanding of the diffusion or communication constructs that promote use of new or innovative instructional tools 58 within and among schools and school districts will help facilitate adoption of new tools such as the Consider This, Internet-based curriculum. It provides a structure for applying theories, in order that the most appropriate intervention strategies can be identified and implemented.

Diagnosis and Evaluation. The PRECEDE portion of the model addresses planning variables including: individual behavior, environmental, organizational, administrative and policy factors. This model is based on the premise that a diagnosis of the educational environment is needed before an effective intervention can be implemented. Glanz explains that this model is not a theory per se, since it does not attempt to explain or predict the relationship among factors thought to be associated with an outcome of interest.

It is however, a structure within which various theoretical approaches can be applied. This aspect of the PRECEDE model had particular appeal to the investigator, since he was interested in explaining not only the social system processes from the perspective of Diffusion of Innovations theory, but also those individual and environmental factors that influence utilization of health education curriculum in schools.

Because impact and outcome evaluations of the Consider This curriculum were not within the domain of this investigation and the PROCEED portion of the model represents implementation and evaluation phases, this research project will use only constructs from the PRECEDE portion of the model and more specifically, constructs associated with Phase 4 of this model, the educational diagnosis phase. Three kinds of causes are identified predisposing factors, enabling factors, and reinforcing factors.

They include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personal preferences, existing skills, and self-efficacy beliefs. In other words, predisposing factors include any characteristics of a person or population that motivate behavior prior to the occurrence of that behavior. Enabling factors are those precursors that allow motivation to be realized, directly or indirectly, through an environmental factor. Enabling factors include programs, services, resources, or skills necessary for behavioral or environmental outcomes to be realized.

They facilitate action and any skill or resource required to attain a specific behavior. Examples of enabling factors include accessibility to a resource, availability of that resource, and skills necessary to access or use a resource. Reinforcing factors are those elements that appear subsequent to behavior and that provide continuing reward or incentive for the behavior to become persistent.

These factors include social support, peer influence, significant others, and vicarious reinforcement. Simply put, these factors are rewards or punishments following or anticipated as a consequence of a behavior. They serve to strengthen the motivation for behavior. The most significant value is using the PRECEDE model was the identification of factors that, if modified, would most likely result in behavior change.

Prioritization of factors was based on the weight of research evidence or relative importance and changeability. This investigation combined constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations the social systems approach and PRECEDE models individual behavioral and environmental approaches to better understand the factors that contribute to diffusion of the Consider This, Internet-based tobacco education curriculum.

Using the Diffusion of Innovations model and constructs from the PRECEDE model, this study described social change and diffusion processes and identified predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that influenced diffusion of the Consider This online curriculum. Each of these models defines its constructs on the assets side of the diffusion equation.

Both models are stage-based models that describe processes leading up to program or innovation implementation. The Diffusion of Innovations model represents a social process that study participants went through to disseminate, adopt, and implement the Consider This curriculum. While participants did not actually develop this innovation the first step in the Diffusion of Innovations model , they did engage in activities to develop capacity for implementation e.

Cl researchers developed the innovation. While the PRECEDE model represents a conscious administrative planning process, participants teachers and administrators may have unconsciously used a model similar to this one to diagnose tobacco use in their schools and to plan their response to identified problems. The common point of interface for these models is the point of implementation or adoption.

Interview and observational data collected during this investigation were fitted to this two-dimensional theoretical framework. The time period and contexts under investigation are represented by the stages that are italicized in Figure 3. The independent and interactive factors specific to each theoretical stage will be discussed in this research.

While the overall study w'as initially conceived and designed to be contained within a single school district Douglas County Schools [DCSD] , using only qualitative methods, many of the intended interviews with DCSD administrators and school principals did not take place because of difficulties scheduling and keeping appointments w'ith the study population.

A brief telephone conversation with a principal who called me on the telephone to cancel an appointment, made it clear that middle school principals and school district administrators in this school district were very busy people who would not likely make time in their schedule for the interview.

This brief telephone conversation also suggested that decisions regarding health education curricula selection were most often made by teachers a suggestion that w;as later verified through this study. Hence, a focused, DCSD district-wide study using interviews as the exclusive source of information was cancelled after interview's had already been conducted with seven DCSD teachers and one administrator. An unforeseen benefit of this change in study design was that it enabled the collection of data front school district employees throughout Colorado whose district had not made a prior commitment to broadly implement CT, like DCSD had made.

By expanding the study to include a broader population of study subjects, data became available from participants w'here the adoption of CT was not as widespread as it appeared to be in DCSD. Making this change in the study design addressed the criticism that diffusion research had predominantly focused on successful diffusion events, and that events w'here diffusion was unsuccessful had not been studied. A cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire that was mailed to all CT trainees at the school where they were employed was selected as the method of choice, since it enabled efficient, low-cost contact with each of the CT trainees.

Email addresses were not available for all potential participants so that method of distribution w'as dismissed. The primary purposes of this survey were to: 1 collect quantitative data that w'as more readily collected using survey methods than interview methods; and 2 expand the pool of study subjects who would be interviewed in the qualitative portion of the study. This survey w;as not a part of the training seminar evaluation, but was conducted as a separate, special study.

Survey Methods Research Design Three components of survey design were considered when this research was undertaken. These components were described as total survey design Fowler, Backstrom and Hursh-Cesars Characteristics of Survey Research were used as guidelines to help assure that the survey data would be free of bias and reliable for decision making. These guiding characteristics define survey research as: 1.

This approach was possible since each of the study participants had signed consent releases at the training session they attended to allow follow-up studies by project researchers. It was also possible since the estimated cost of its administration was within the budget that I allowed for this data collection.

Since I was still employed by the Principal Investigator of the CT research project, I was able to obtain training session attendance rosters with subject identifying and contact information for purposes of this research. The survey sample 66 included all of the school district and local health related personnel who attended one of the eight CT training seminars offered in December of or January of Questions were derived to answer theoretically sound inquiries that would address the specific aims of the study.

The survey questionnaire can be found in Appendix A. The procedures used to develop the mailed questionnaire were procedures that I have used in previous studies. These procedures are those generally recommended by Dillman , the Total Design Method for surveys, Aday and Czar and Blair The steps employed were: 1 determine the kind of information sought; 2 structure a question; and 3 choose the words carefully. Attitudes, beliefs, behaviors and attributes were the general types of information sought Dillman, Field testing of the questionnaire on a subset of the study population would have biased their responses to the final questionnaire, so this method of pre-testing the instrument w'as not used.

The draft survey instrument was reviewed for clarity and contextual language by a school administrator personal friend who was not a potential participant in the survey. Changes were made in accordance with feedback provided by this third party. The logic employed in determining the content and structure of questions is described in the following paragraphs. Detailing the structure and content of the 67 questions helped identify the data processing requirements.

To assure that survey respondents were eligible for the study the first question on the survey instrument asked respondents if they attended one of the CT training seminars. As mentioned above, all but one of 83 respondents answered affirmatively. Since there were two principal groups of seminars trainees, teaching and non- teaching school district staff, and the ability to implement the CT curriculum in the classroom was limited to the teaching group, a question was developed to determine the position held by each participant question 2.

The innovation-decision process is the process through which an individual or decision-making unit passes 1 from first knowledge of an innovation, 2 to forming at attitude toward an innovation persuasion , 3 to a decision to adopt or reject. Therefore, determining how teaching and non-teaching staff first heard about CT knowledge is a critical step in the dissemination research process.

Figure 4. This figure and the model it represents drove development of the survey questionnaire. It also provided a guide to the analysis of the survey and interview data. Question 3 was developed to answer the question as to how knowledge of the innovation came about. The discrete responses for this question were informed by the seven interviews conducted with DCSD employees in the early stage of this investigation and with his knowledge of Consider This promotional activity that occurred prior to the training seminars.

The possible responses to question 3 acknowledged that adopters would likely hear about this innovation through the 68 promotional activities the primary source of the change agent CT project staff and secondary sources their social networks. Question 4, What factors influenced your registration and attendance at this training seminar? It was developed to address the persuasion 69 stage illustrated in Figure 4. Here once again, the DCSD interviews conducted in the early stages of this investigation helped inform the response choices that were offered.

Each of the response categories added was associated with at least one of three of Rogers' rate of adoption characteristics for an innovation i. For example, substitute teacher expenses were reimbursed, a response choice, was categorized as a factor that made it easier for teachers to try CT trialability. Table 4. The perceived quality or value of the seminar could have contributed to the adoption or rejection of CT. Non- teachers skipped to question These questions enabled the collection of data on frequency of classroom use, the school year that it was used, satisfaction with the CT program, and if teachers did not use CT, reasons for non-use.

In summary, these questions provide a measure of the extent to which CT was adopted by teachers. This data was used to determine the relationship between these self-reported adopter categories and their use of CT. Comfort with and training related to computer technology are enabling factors that allow participant motivations to be realized. The closing questions were used to record respondent demographic descriptors when they received their bachelors degree, if they had an advanced degree and the type of degree, gender, age and race and smoking behavior use of cigarettes in the past 30 days.

The final question of the survey asked the respondent if he or she was "willing to help the investigator with this research by being interviewed on the telephone. This question enabled the identification of respondents who would become participants in the qualitative portion of the study. Training seminar registrant address information was extracted from CT project files, mailing labels were printed, and letters, including the survey instrument, were mailed to all seminar attendees.

A cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and asking potential participants to complete the enclosed survey questionnaire was mailed in late February of to all persons on the CT training seminar attendee list. Two follow-up reminder postcards were mailed to non-respondents at two-week intervals following the initial mailing.

All responses were received by early April of One person returned the survey and indicated that they had not attended any one of the CT training seminars and was therefore deemed ineligible for the study. Therefore, there w'ere 82 eligible respondents who were included in the analysis of the survey data.

At this point in time, the completed survey questionnaires were forwarded to Abacus Statistical Consultants for data entry into an Excel database. Data Processing As questionnaires were returned they were logged-in and separated into two piles.

One pile contained those questionnaires whose respondents declined to be interviewed and the other included those who agreed. Email messages were sent to those participants who agreed to be interviewed to schedule a date and time for 72 a telephone interview. If there was no reply to the email message, approximately two weeks from the logged-in date of the returned survey, phone calls were made to schedule the interviews.

After the telephone interviews were scheduled, the survey data were entered into an Excel data file by a data entry operator affiliated with Abacus and frequency distributions for each question and the data file returned to the investigator. The receipt of this data signaled the initiation of the analysis activity. Analysis Methods Completed questionnaires were reviewed for completeness and clarity of responses before they were forwarded for data entry.

Extraneous marks were removed from the completed questionnaires and responses verified by range checks. Frequency tables of questionnaire variables were provided by Abacus and cross tabulations produced after review of the preliminary tables. Confidence intervals or the Fisher Exact Test was used to test statistical associations between variables. Adoption of CT was limited to the teacher group, since this is the subgroup of study participants that has routine access to students and works regularly in the classroom, the intended implementation environment for CT.

It was important therefore to examine the adoption behaviors of this group separately from the non-teachers. It was assumed that non-teachers do not routinely plan lessons or implement curricula in the classroom, two requirements for successful use of CT. Seventy-five percent of the respondents were female one person did not respond to the gender question.

The average age of all of study participants was The average ages for teachers and non-teachers were Islander 0 0 0 Am. The smokers were proportionately distributed among the position categories with three smokers being teachers. Overall, more than half of the respondents 43 had advanced degrees, with all but one of those being a Master's degree and that one was a Doctoral degree. As can be seen in Table 4. See Table 4. Fourteen percent Among first to try it early adopter After a few others try it early majority After most others try it late majority Long after most others try it laggards Total Teachers 20 32 5 0 57 This finding may be influenced by the inclusion of information technology staff in the non-teacher group.

IT staff may see themselves as early adopters and the organizations that they work for as later adopters, thus reflecting a likely bias towards adoption of technology innovations. They were also likely biased toward adoption of innovations. This difference seems to diminish somewhat when the early adopter and early majority categories are combined. Nearly one teacher in six Self-reported personal innovation adoption practices or behaviors were classified using the same DOI adopter classifications as that for the school districts.

One-third Ten respondents While the percentage of participants that were personally categorized as being on the early adopter side of the normal curve early adopters and early majority was slightly greater than that for their school districts behavior This suggests that some respondents felt that their school district was more innovative than themselves. With greater than three quarters of the participants self-classifying in these categories, this suggests that self-reporting of adopter classification is significantly favorably biased.

As Rogers suggests One-third of all respondents indicated that they were very comfortable with computer technology A surprising finding was that Frequency of Teacher Use of Consider This The frequency of use of the Consider This curriculum in the classroom is the strongest indicator of its dissemination among study participants who were trained in Among the entire study group, teachers were the only subgroup that could implement CT in the classroom. The non-teacher respondents counselors, nurses, IT personnel, administrators, non-school district personnel do not routinely 79 I have instructional responsibilities in the classroom.

Of the 82 school personnel who responded to the survey, 59 indicated that they were teachers and 57 of those responded to the frequency of use question. Therefore, the following analyses on use of CT are limited to the teacher subgroup. Of the teachers who responded to the survey, This group failed to move past the decision stage to the implementation stage.

See Figure 4. This group included the trial 80 and temporary users and the adopters. None of the teacher groups were immune from discontinued use or later adoption. So it is important to recognize that this cross-sectional review of CT use does not imply that eighteen percent of the teachers who responded to the survey surveyed the adoption group continued to use CT after this survey was conducted or that they were even using it at the time of the survey.

As Figure 4. Later adoption by those who had rejected CT is also possible. These adoption dynamics influence cross-sectional analyses of adoption rates. Dissemination The dissemination stage, the second stage following innovation development in the diffusion process model was the first stage to be assessed in this survey. For purposes of this study, those persons who were eligible to be classified in this stage were all of the participants who attended one of the CT training seminars.

Those who returned a survey, a subset of this group, were those who were classified as having reached this dissemination stage for the analysis. How teachers initially heard about CT and the offering of CT training seminars first knowledge of CT may be an important determinant of the most effective means for promoting or disseminating CT. Survey respondents checked all of the methods by which they had heard about 81 the CT curriculum and specified the means by which they heard about CT that were not listed by describing them on the other category response line.

The means by which teachers heard about CT were grouped for this analysis into the following three groups. Promotional actions brochure or poster received in the mail or CT project staff contacted them directly. In-school network i. Out-of-school network write-in responses a teacher in another school; health education consulting organization; and local tobacco control coalition. Did the means by which teachers heard about the CT curriculum influence use in the classroom?

Since CT had not previously been promoted in Colorado schools prior to the CDPHE-funded dissemination project, the brochure and poster packet mailing to Colorado middle, junior and senior high schools was likely the only way that school personnel could have heard about CT.

In Table 4. Participants w'ere permitted to check all responses that applied. Column 3 is the total of columns 2 and 3, and column 5 is the total of columns 4 and 2. Over all groups of adoption types, the data in Table 4. Over half of the 82 survey respondents On face value, it could be concluded that the most important method for communicating with teachers about CT was the in-school network. However, that conclusion does not take into account the time dimension or sequence of events that led to teacher knowledge of CT.

The promotional materials 83 and other dissemination actions phone calls by CT project staff that were employed created knowledge of CT and activated in-school communication networks, thereby initiating the diffusion process. Channels of communication outside of the in-school network column 4, Table 4. Only 8. The numbers in each cell of Table 4. Did promotional actions or in-school communication channels have a greater influence on eventual adoption of this curriculum? Adoption, implementation and maintenance of an innovation were the desired outcomes of the diffusion process, so it was important to test the influence of these two dissemination methods on those outcomes.

Because of small numbers, the Chi-Square statistic could not be used to test differences in usage of CT between the teachers represented in columns 1 and 4 of Table 4. Instead, confidence intervals were computed around the proportions in columns 1 and 4 which are independent groups.

I have urged on every class a sense of ownership for. Most alumni and members of our surrounding community feel an appreciation for Millikin. However, I am. We need one another to be Millikin together. Millikin University President Dr. Patrick E. White was the featured keynote speaker at the bi-annual Community Leaders Breakfast in Decatur on Oct. President White spoke about the. Also, graduate student revenue was higher than last year from an increase in students in the MBA and nursing graduate and DNP programs.

White emphasized how Millikin curriculum. Following President Patrick E. After soliciting input from various stakeholders over the summer and early fall, the recruiting period of the search ended on Nov. Eight candidates were selected to interview in Chicago in December. Three to four final candidates will be invited to campus for extended interviews in late January , with a goal of welcoming the 16th president following the February Board of Trustees meetings.

President White was elected the 15th president of Millikin University in October Under his leadership, we have made significant progress on many fronts. We have continued to build on our strong tradition of academic excellence and our commitment to Performance Learning; we completed the Transform MU capital campaign and have continued to mark strong fundraising with record annual fund contributions and growth in endowed scholarships; we have grown the number and success of our athletic programs; we have worked to stabilize enrollments and have achieved growth in net tuition revenue and student diversity; we have changed the face of the campus through facilities that serve our students and community in new and exciting ways; we have risen in the national higher education rankings and earned notice in a number of rankings of specific programs; and so much more.

Consequently, the next president will have much to build on and significant forward momentum. A Chicago-bred, Los Angeles-based comedian and writer, Booster has. Phi Kappa Phi is the nation's oldest and most selective all-discipline collegiate honor society. Schroeder is one of recipients nationwide to receive the award. Established in , the Love of Learning Program gives awards annually in support of post-baccalaureate professional development.

Schroeder plans to utilize the Love of Learning Award to expand her cancer cell research. Since spring , Schroeder has trained and worked with 32 students in her research lab, as well as helped mentor. Several have now gone on beyond Millikin to thrive in graduate research or medical school. At Millikin, we strongly encourage students to do the hands-on work and it gives them a chance to really see if this is what they want to do," said Schroeder. Millikin community comes together to support local food drive The 18th annual WSOY Community Food Drive was held in Decatur oin October , and Millikin University was once again among the many contributors who helped the Decatur community surpass its goal by raising 1.

This year, the Millikin community came together to donate more than 5, pounds of food. President Dr. White and several student leaders delivered the food donations on the morning of the food drive. Each year, Millikin University's Athletics Department adopts the community food drive as a special focus for service. Lindsay Field with their non-perishable items in hand. Korbin Farmer, a senior philosophy major from Columbia, Ill. Pritzker appointed Dr. Dan Monroe,. Monroe will serve as the Illinois Historian on the board.

In May , he was elected to serve a two-year term as president of the Illinois State Historical Society. Victoria Bam, a. She came to Millikin after serving as a. In addition to teaching Global Health, Dr. Bam is also co-teaching two courses; one. I'm happy to be doing this because we can work with people and institutions to prevent a lot of the diseases in our environment that Dr. Dan Monroe. It signals the beginning of the holiday season with a sumptuous evening of carols, choirs and candlelight.

During the event, over musicians join together in Kirkland Fine Arts Center for a joyous musical feast with songs from past centuries combined with familiar carols and arrangements. In honor of the 60th Anniversary of Vespers, Millikin University studentrun record label First Step Records is releasing a one-of-a-kind, special edition Vespers 60th anniversary dual CD with an attached page booklet. The Big Blue finished in third place in the Division III competition for the second year in a row recording 28 team points.

The Millikin women finished in eighth place. Powers, who finished seventh overall, and Hope Roderick, who rounded out the Top 10 finishing 10th. Brigid Duesterhaus would finish 11th. Millikin earned their second third place finish at the NCAA Triathlon National Championships, winning their first title in , the team's first year of competition.

Wright Classic on Sept. That day, the Millikin men took four of the top 10 finishes as the Millikin women won their race by capturing three of the top 10 spots. First Step Records produced two discs - one of the Richard D. Hoffland era, and one of the Brad Holmes era. The label wanted to share the history of Vespers by including an attached page booklet, written by Millikin's very own Dr. First Step Records also launched a Kickstarter campaign where individuals can find exclusive Vespers 60th anniversary deals that will support the special edition CD and celebrate the beloved tradition of Vespers.

It is. They also established and support the Robert F. Tomlinson and Juanita. Music and past capital campaign projects, including Transform MU, has been an important part of the momentum to move Millikin forward.

A longtime vice president and trust officer at First National Bank of Decatur, Ritchie retired from the banking industry at Busey Bank. Ritchie has used his banking expertise to help several community. Sandra, a master gardener, helped design the floral gardens at the Decatur Public Library and sang with both the Greater Decatur Chorale and her church choir.

Brechnitz, Walter L. Sparks, James R. Bret Mason, Gregory R. Fund and various University athletic teams over the years. They recently established and endowed the Erik C. Business Experience Fund to provide financial assistance for travel and lodging expenses incurred by Tabor School of Business. The first recipient was announced last spring and used the funds to pursue a summer internship at Ameren corporate headquarters in St.

In , he received an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Millikin. In recognition of his loyalty and generosity to his alma mater, Neff was named the recipient of the Alumni Loyalty Award. Scholarship Fund and have supported capital campaigns and many special projects. They are also members of. Peel has returned to campus to speak with students on U. He has also generously supported the Millikin Fund, student. In , she was mobilized in support of Hurricane Katrina, followed by deployments to.

In , she was elected circuit. Graduate Research Fellowship. Formerly a postdoctoral research associate at Los Alamos National Laboratory, she was a remote guest lecturer for Millikin and. For information regarding Alumni Association membership, benefits, activities and service on the board, please email alumnews millikin.

Catholic League CCL championships, two sectional championships and placed second at state, while the football teams. With rebounds in 91 games, she remains in seventh place all-time for. Please let us know what we got right. She finished her 18th year as head volleyball coach. MVP, he was also team captain in III national tournament three times.

In , he finished seventh in the nation. He is a bodily injury claims team manager for State Farm Insurance. The home dugout has been custom designed to provide an elevated coaches' area allowing field and player view. Each dugout is designed with wireless internet access points to support modern internet-based technology used in baseball. Electrical service for the new facility has been designed to support future ceiling-mounted radiant heaters in each of the dugouts.

The infield has been designed and the field has been calibrated to provide the speed of play best fitting the desired play of Millikin University baseball. The outfield is designed for multi-use and can accommodate a foot long practice soccer field and a foot long practice football field. Synthetic all-weather turf and subbase is designed to drain no less than an average of 30 inches of rain per hour. Bleacher seating for spectators, as well as, a grass seating area on an elevated berm has been provided along the east third base fence.

Millikin University officially opened the new on-campus home of the Big Blue baseball program with the dedication of the Workman Family Baseball Field on Sept. The grandstand has seating capacity for spectators. Seating includes bleachers, seat-back chairs and a patio area, all elevated above the playing field. Millikin University will be the only school in the College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin CCIW with an on-campus baseball-only facility with a full turf field and a clubhouse.

The new clubhouse is located below the grandstand. Craig White. The press box has the capacity for six media professionals and houses controls for the lights and inning-by-inning scoreboard overlooking the right-center field fence. For the future … this amazing facility will help raise our program, recruiting and enhance our studentathlete experience for many years. Activities on Sept. Millikin baseball alumni had a chance to play on the new field during an alumni baseball game on Saturday, Sept.

Pitchers are going to be able to get loose a lot easier. I'm just extremely excited to use all of the equipment and get to work on this field and do everything we need to do to win a CCIW championship. UPS as a part-time package handler while he was still a Millikin student. After graduating from Millikin in , he began working for the company on a full-time basis, eventually becoming a senior internal auditor.

Workman retired from UPS in after spending 33 years in a variety of jobs in industrial engineering, human resources, accounting and auditing. Workman also made a lead gift in support of the addition of artificial turf and other significant enhancements to Frank M.

Lindsay Field through the "Transform MU" capital campaign. After graduating from Millikin in , Harrington started his working career with a local public accounting firm in Decatur. Later, Harrington moved to south.

Louis to Chicago, until its eventual sale in December In , Tom, in partnership with his wife, Cordia, established a wholesale bakery manufacturing company originally located in Dickson, Tenn. Tennessee Bun Company is one of the most automated bakeries in the world, selling over million buns annually. Harrington serves as chief operating officer and chief financial officer and is involved in the strategic leadership of the company. Go Big Blue! Staley Sr.

It was long overdue, and now that Millikin baseball will be playing on campus, we feel it will enhance campus life and help bring more quality student-athletes to Millikin. I would like to thank the Harringtons and especially the Workmans, whose extremely generous donations made this facility become a reality for Millikin.

After finishing his time. He returned to Decatur in to become partner with the Beggs family at Dunn Company. In , Tyrolt acquired the remaining interest in the company. Frank and his beloved wife Shirley married in Tyrolt passed away peacefully on Aug. Coach of the Year. There will be both first-year and transfer students who will make an impact on the field, pool, course or.

Smith was named to the All-Conference First Team for the third straight season. The baseball team began practicing on Field in the fall. The new facility will be beginning with the upcoming season. Fundraising continues for. Phase One of our M-Powered athletic facilities expansion and renovation initiative. We are thankful for our philanthropic partners who assist in making the Millikin.

These dollars primarily support scholarships, academic programs and capital projects. Thanks to the generosity of our donors, more than endowed. Gifts in support of scholarships help ensure a quality education for students who might otherwise be unable to afford to attend Millikin.

Our fundraising efforts this year have supported many projects, including the renovation of the Millitrax recording studios,. Efforts continue to seek more. All benefit. In a previous issue of Millikin Magazine, we shared with you our single-digit alumni participation numbers.

In other words, fewer than 10 alumni out of. Their more than 45 years of giving has provided generous support for scholarships, the Big Blue Club, capital campaigns and more. They recently established five new funds for athletics. Performance Learning to our students. Each dollar given to the Millikin Fund makes a difference, and gifts of any. University if you or your spouse work for or are retired from a company that has a matching gift program.

Just as important, you will know that you have made a. Call Lauren Acton with questions at: When new business students begin their academic journey in the Tabor School of Business, they are quickly introduced to unique opportunities that not only teach them successful business practices, but help them build confidence to succeed in their chosen career path. In their first year, business majors at Millikin University are involved right away.

They are given an integrated experience combined with learning labs. Part of this experience is delivered through two courses: Business Creation and Team Dynamics. The Business Plan course has four sections, with 25 students in each section.

Students in the sections are then grouped accordingly in teams of five. The Business Creation course is also combined with the Team Dynamics course, where students not only learn how to work in teams, but learn team leadership, management and the role of conflict.

For those getting acclimated to the business world, a mentor can serve as a trusted confidante who provides guidance and can have a direct, positive impact on the growth of a business over time. The mentors come from a variety of industry backgrounds including legal, real estate, retail and marketing. Each team in the course will receive a mentor. The mentor works with the team throughout the semester to develop their business plan and to work on their pitch.

What the students are being exposed to now is very important. Mark Munoz, professor of management and international business at Millikin University, and new faculty member Dr. Yuhan Hua, assistant professor of entrepreneurship, both lead the four sections of the Business Creation course. Munoz has brought mentors to his class in previous years, and with Dr. Hua needing mentors for this year, the mentoring program was started.

Munoz has, and we wanted to do the same with Dr. There will be 11 mentors for Dr. The winning team receives a cash prize to use toward an international experience with Millikin, such as an immersion trip or a study abroad course. Freeman, who owns a consulting firm and is a MBA graduate, says he had a mentor who helped him launch his business two years ago. What Millikin is doing is phenomenal in terms of the involvement with the community.

I know how it felt to bounce ideas off of someone and to be a think partner, and I want to be that for them. During the academic year, Millikin embarked on the process to create a fusion office that would offer lifecycle-advising support for students from their first year through their senior year and beyond. Previously, Millikin had an Office of. Over a five-year period, we had seen a steady decline in the use of our career services unit and the narrow set of.

Thus, the Center for Academic and. The CAPP stewards programs on both ends of the. The CAPP. In , Millikin also became a strengthsbased campus. In partnership with Gallup Inc. CAPP staff also became certified strength coaches and utilize the strengths-based framework in much of their advising,. Over the last two years, we have seen many other college campuses follow suit with their own fusion offices that.

When she was told that she needed to limit her time reading due to issues with her vision, she was traumatized. A native of Paris, Ill. Because of her experience, Martin found her calling and set a goal of becoming an optometrist herself. With her career aspiration in mind, Martin was determined to find a school that was going to prepare her for future graduate studies. For example, Dr.

But before she leaves Millikin, she has a bit of advice for her fellow Millikin students. You can really make a difference. Each year, certain departments conduct a program review to analyze the quality of the academic experience provided to. An initiative coming from the mathematics. Mathematics faculty leaders also helped develop a new pre-. As an example of excellence, Dr. We have an outstanding record of professional success of our humanities alumni, and.

Our students have already lived the life of being a historian, a writer, an editor, a publisher, a conference presenter, a debater,. Each concentration. However, after Gabriel started researching more into the venerated faculty at Millikin, she decided to take a closer look at the Big Blue. Gabriel knew that studying vocal performance would be a major aspect of her education and when she contacted the faculty at the Millikin School of Music, she gained a sense of belonging.

Gabriel is double majoring in commercial music — with an emphasis in vocal performance — and business management, with an entrepreneurship minor. From the moment that Gabriel stepped on campus, her positive attitude and vocal talent allowed her to network her way to getting involved in a plethora of organizations on campus.

Perhaps the most noteworthy is an audition-based vocal jazz group called BluBop. I grew in confidence and experience because of BluBop. It truly opened my eyes to jazz music, and I love it. The Center is over 60, square. Millitrax has been in need of an updated console for a few years, and it has finally arrived — and thanks to the hard work. Additionally, faculty in the School of Music are developing.

Dance is Sound Designer Anna Alex, who will also teach audio courses for music and arts technology students. Finally, we are in the midst of a thrilling season of concerts, plays, musicals, art exhibitions and more for the His passion for helping others has led to aspirations to work as a nurse in the intensive care unit ICU or with anesthesia. In high school, Hayes was unsure whether or not nursing was his calling or if Millikin was the right choice for him.

However, his time at Millikin thus far has reassured him that he is in the right place. I feel as if I am a part of something much bigger than myself. Deborah Slayton, dean emeritus of the College of Professional Studies CPS , retired at the end of the academic year, following 39 years of service to Millikin. Pam Lindsey, director of the School of Nursing, assumed the role of interim dean for the academic year.

In response to an external review conducted was replaced with the sport and recreation accompanied by curricular changes which. Krieger has gained valuable hands-on experience from Performance Learning. Currently an intern in the labs department at State Farm, Krieger is also a senior consultant for Millikin University Performance Consulting MUPC , a student-run venture that specializes in performance consulting work.

The revamped finance major already has eight students enrolled, and there are currently. Our students come from many parts of the United States and. Last but not least, we are a school with a mission. This is what attracted many of us to our school and what continues to attract others. All these things are critical to the world. We know they will ask, demand, suggest and. In attendance is Mrs.

A lifelong love of music and the performing arts prompted Mrs. Ten years — with the help of privateduty nurses and KFAC staff — spent as a fixture at nearly every show. Paul L. McKay, honored both Mrs. Kirkland and her transformative gift:. Kirkland being greeted by President McKay and his wife on opening night. You see children at events. And I think their lives are going to be broader for it.

Each year, hundreds of Millikin students express themselves through music, theatre and visual arts, and many proudly display their talents via Kirkland Fine Arts Center. KFAC, named in honor of both Mrs. Kirkland and her husband, Ernest T. Kirkland, has been known for spotlighting this kind of artistic expression for five decades. And after that, Dennis School started their own step group.

A dynamic conductor and educator who has spent the last decade maximizing the artistic potential of a wide variety of ensembles, Seapy is leading the Millikin University Symphonic Wind Ensemble succeeding the legendary Dr. Gary Shaw who retired in July after 37 years at Millikin. Growing up overseas, Seapy started playing music on piano, clarinet and saxophone all before high school, and stuck with clarinet and saxophone up until becoming a conductor.

Seapy says the best part about being a conductor is the interpersonal aspect. Seapy led the Symphonic Wind Ensemble in his first concert of the year on Oct. It moves your heart, it moves your brain and it moves your feet. Corey Seapy. Hopefully through rehearsals and performances, students are loving music more, growing as musicians and improving their skillset.

That will be an exciting collaboration with a composer. Prior to living in Kansas City, Seapy conducted and taught in Massachusetts, where he served as music director of the Charles River Wind Ensemble, an auditioned adult group in Metro-Boston, and as director of bands at Ipswich High School.

Most college students are no strangers to the burdens that come with financing their education. For students whose majors require unpaid internships, those burdens are felt even more acutely. As he learned more about what his friends had experienced throughout their educational journeys, DeBo felt led to make a difference in the lives of individuals working in the helping professions.

To that end, DeBo, a Normal, Ill. The endowed fund is designed to benefit students participating in unpaid internships with non-profit organizations. Through this opportunity, DeBo became engaged with Dove, Inc. She had a big impact on me while I was here. Desiring a more focused approach, Pepping wanted to find an internship that would afford her supervised time specifically in her field of study.

For nearly two years, Pepping served Hope as its art intern. Now a graduate student in the. Seattle area, Pepping finds herself still reflecting upon her internship experience today. In addition to serving Hope for two years as an unpaid intern, Pepping made the drive to Springfield to work with the students multiple times a week, using money from her own pocket to fund her travel.

DeBo respects that kind of commitment and sacrifice, and he believes it should be rewarded. As a professor of social work who serves alongside students committed to the helping professions, Garrison is excited about the impact that the VHP fund will be able to have on others. She believes that it particularly speaks volumes to have human services students receive much-needed support from an individual from another field of study.

It is a hard job. I think it really validates that their work is important. They're not just helpers. DeBo believes strongly that the VHP internship gives individuals, particularly young alumni, a way to make a tangible difference in the lives of Millikin students. We need people doing that work. Many little girls think about their wedding day their entire lives.

They envision wearing the most beautiful dress they will ever own, clutching a bouquet of sweet-smelling flowers and walking down the aisle to unite themselves with the person of their dreams. They picture celebrating the day surrounded by the people they love the most, playfully shoving cake into the face of their new spouse and being whisked away on a relaxing honeymoon to parts unknown. James Catholic Church to start their new life together.

In speaking about her groom, Holly described Jacob, an insurance producer with Arthur J. I married up! It was everything they had hoped for — and then some. McCormick suddenly started feeling faint and asked his son to fetch a cold rag, then collapsed. Holly saw McCormick lying across a couch, with his wife yelling for someone to dial Immediately switching out of bride mode and into nurse mode, Holly dragged McCormick onto the floor and felt for a pulse.

Not finding one, she instructed Jacob to go get her bridesmaids — who were also nurses — and began administering CPR. After a number of compressions, McCormick started moving, and the bridal party of nursing professionals sprang into action. They hooked McCormick up to an automatic external defibrillator, took his blood pressure and got his medical information from his family.

Ultimately diagnosed. She also publishes and presents on political cartoons as social critique. For more information, visit her website at www. Judith continues to sing in her church choir and play in the handbell choir. The Campbells live in Everett, Wash. Robert played trumpet on the tour. In addition, one of his musical compositions was featured in a performance by the Millikin-Decatur Symphony Orchestra.

The award was presented during a banquet at which composer Peter Schickele known for P. Bach was the featured speaker. Mitchell, who retired in , is a professor emeritus at the University of MassachusettsBoston. She is married to Dr. Dennis Backstrom, who has retired from his position as an emergency medicine physician with Passavant Memorial Hospital. For more on Dr.

Thomas, see millikin. He writes that he feels blessed to retire and spend more time with his daughters, sons-in-law and grandchildren. His retirement plans include traveling, hiking and camping. He teaches a Sunday school class for adults with developmental disabilities at his local church. In this position, Katrina assists families with securing a financial future for their loved ones. She also served as assistant director for the Lincoln Junior High School play for 30 years.

WORLD CUP VEGAS BETTING

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SOUTHAMPTON VS STOKE CITY BETTING EXPERT

A few of the factors students attributed to this disconnect were: The quality of student Internet-based assignments was poor and uninspiring; 38 School administrators set the tone for Internet use at school. Policy choicesby those vvhorunschoolsystemshaveresultedindifferentschoolshaving differentlevelsofaccesstothelntemet.

These barriers, while significant now, if not addressed soon will become even more pronounced as broadband connections become more commonplace and more students become online users. Internet-based assignments will need to be compelling and inspire student learning.

Administrators will need to become better informed about the technical and administrative barriers to effective use of the Web in schools. Change agents will need to know how to effectively deliver and disseminate Web-based tools to schools and school districts. Other research findings indicate that use of Web technology in the educational environment can be effective in changing health practices. In a study of a Web-based computer-tailored, nutrition education program, changes in student determinants of behavior were found Oenema, If the Internet is to become an effective 1 39 teaching tool for classroom teachers, then research needs to expand so that knowledge of effective dissemination and instructional strategies continues to develop.

Use of the Internet, like other communication media, has both benefits and liabilities. Its primary benefit for adolescents who are seeking health-related information may be the anonymity that is afforded by an interactive computer environment. Overall, While not tested in this study, disclosing health behaviors, especially those that are known to be socially undesirable, in an interactive computer environment, like that provided by CT, may be easier for some adolescents than talking wfith health care providers or parents.

Computers and Internet Access in Colorado Schools A national market research study conducted during school year found that the computer-to-student ratio for Colorado schools was only slightly above the national average. There was one computer for every 5. These ratios compare favorably to California schools, where the ratio was little more than one computer for every 8 students, but unfavorably to Wyoming schools, where the ratio was one computer to 3. In conclusion, with this literature review as the knowledge and conceptual bases for this research, I pursued the identification of factors that promoted and impeded adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Web-based tobacco education and prevention curriculum entitled Consider This.

Identification of the determinants of Internet program usage in the classroom was done in the context of theoretical approaches to communications and behavior change. DOI identified the communications context for dissemination and adoption of CT. The teacher curriculum adoption process is described using DOI constructs relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, adoption, dissemination, and maintenance.

Individual and environmental behavioral factors associated with adoption of Consider This are described with constructs from the PRECEDE model predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Diffusion of Innovations Given that an innovation exists, communication must take place if the innovation is to spread.

Everett M. Rogers, Rogers, , p. Understanding and influencing the decision-making process can help expedite adoption and influence the survival of an innovation. New ideas or innovations often do not survive because financial support for the idea is not sustained sufficiently for the innovation to be accepted within a social system. Understanding the diffusion process, its barriers, and how it is enabled is especially important if the innovation is to be accepted and this acceptance sustained.

Understanding the factors that influence diffusion of Consider This e. Diffusion of Innovations theory provides a framework for identifying effective approaches for disseminating the Consider This program. DOI holds that several characteristics of an innovation affect its adoption Buller, Rogers He defines communication as a process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding Rogers, , p.

Rogers contends that diffusion is a special type of communication in that the messages are concerned with new ideas. It is the newness or uncertainty of the idea that makes diffusion a unique type of communication. The following discussion of these elements in the context of the innovation that is the focus of this research helped inform the study design and instrumentation used to gather data.

Innovation Traits Rogers contends that if the idea seems new to the individual, then it is an innovation. Newness of an idea may be expressed in terms of knowledge, persuasion, or a decision to adopt. The perceived traits of an innovation or idea thus influences how quickly a new idea is tried and adopted. Rogers makes a distinction between hardware and software innovations, two broad innovation traits. Hardware innovations are equipment or tools, and software innovations are the information base for the tool.

Schools have been using personal computers for approximately 20 years, and some school personnel had access to computers long before personal computers were introduced. In the strictest sense of Rogers definition of hardware a tool that contains the technology as a material or physical object , we could also define the Internet as the hardware that embodies the Consider This software. Without the availability of computer hardware, diffusion of this innovation would not be possible.

Therefore, the most important trait of this innovation is that it is dependent on the availability of and access to personal computers. Much of Rogers research has been in the domain of technology. An important observation of his that is relevant to this study is included: A technological innovation usually has some degree of benefit for its potential adopters.

This advantage is not always very clear-cut, at least not to the intended adopters. They are seldom certain that an innovation represents a superior alternative to the previous practice that it might replace. In the case of the CT innovation, teachers and other school personnel, as the potential adopters, may be uncertain about the benefit that an Internet-based tobacco education curriculum might provide over a traditional document-based, classroom curriculum.

In the strictest sense of the term, the only potential adopters of the CT curriculum are teachers. They are the only subgroup of school employees who have routine access to the classroom the environment where it is implemented and to the students who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the innovation.

Those attributes are described here: 1. Relative Advantage The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supercedes; 2. Compatibility The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with existing values, past experiences, and the needs of potential adopters; 3.

Complexity The degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use; 4. Trialability The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis; and 5. Observability The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. Innovations that have the above five qualities more relative advantage, a high degree of compatibility, trialability, observability, and less complexity are more likely to have higher rates of adoption.

Specific innovation attributes of the CT curriculum as perceived by the teacher participants in this study are described in the qualitative portion of this dissertation. Communication Channels Communication channels, another element of the diffusion process, are the means by which messages about an innovation get from one person to another. Mass media and interpersonal communications are the two principal means by which information is transmitted.

Mass media channels involve radio, television, 46 newspapers, mass mailings, etc. Interpersonal channels involve face-to-face interactions between two or more persons. The quality and effectiveness of communications transmitted through these two channels are influenced by the principle of homophily, i.

Homophilous individuals share personal and social characteristics, attribute similar meanings to things and ideas, and share a mutual subcultural language. In contrast, persons who are heterophilous do not share these characteristics. Time The innovation-decision process is one that is measured in part by time. Time represents a the period between an individuals initial knowledge of an innovation to the moment of adoption or rejection, b the relative earliness or lateness of an innovation being adopted, and c the rate of adoption of an innovation in a social system.

The innovation-decision process consists of five steps: a knowledge when an individual or decision-making unit learns of an innovation; b persuasion when individual or unit forms a favorable or unfavorable opinion on the innovation; c decision when an individual engages in activities that lead to adoption or rejection of the innovation; d implementation when the individual puts the innovation into practice; and e confirmation when the individual realizes reinforcement of an innovation-decision.

Time is an important dimension explaining the innovation-decision process. Broad steps or markers of the CT curriculum adoption process were identified in both 47 the survey and interview portions of this investigation to help characterize the rate of adoption. Social Systems A social system is a set of inter-related units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal.

Characteristics of social systems therefore affect diffusion. More specifically, within a social system the roles of opinion leaders and change agents, social norms that relate to, enable or constrain adoption of an innovation, and the types and consequences of an innovation all affect diffusion. Formal and informal social systems within schools and school districts affect the rate and breadth of diffusion.

The formal systems are those that are created by management and administration of a school district or school. The informal systems are those that are established through inter-personal communications. The communication structure patterned communication flow within and among schools and between school and district administrators determines who interacts with whom and under what circumstances. Understanding the dynamics of the social system and its communication structure helps define the diffusion process and its predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors.

Norms, or social standards, are cultural models shared by individuals in a social system which communicate to individuals what behaviors are expected and 48 desired. Norms therefore are often powerful factors in the diffusion process. Personal innovativeness or adopter categories help classify members of a social system according to their willingness or tendency to adopt new ideas Rogers, The adopter categories are as follows: Innovators Persons or decision-making bodies who are venturesome.

Their interest in new ideas tends to lead them outside of their peer networks and into a more cosmopolitan circle. They serve a gatekeeper role in the flow of new ideas into a system. Early adopters Persons who are respected and are more integrated or active within their local social system.

They have the greatest degree of opinion leadership within the social system. Ideally change agents would seek them out to help promote acceptance of a new idea or innovation. Early majority Persons who adopt new ideas just before the average member of a system.

They interact frequently with their peers and represent approximately one-third of the social system Rogers, Late majority Persons who adopt new ideas just after the average person in a social system. Laggards Persons who are last in a social system to adopt an idea. They are near isolates within the social networks of their system and tend to be suspicious of new ideas or innovations.

Figure 3. The CT innovation development stage the first step in the social change process took place in at The Cooper Institute. Other Human Elements of the Diffusion Process The following two human roles are key catalysts in the diffusion process.

Opinion Leaders Individuals who are able to influence informally, in a desired way and with relative frequency, other individuals attitudes and behaviors. Change Agents Individuals who influence clients innovation-decisions in a direction deemed desirable by the agency they represent.

Note: Change agents usually use opinion leaders as their lieutenants or champions in diffusion campaigns. Summary of Diffusion of Innovations Constructs Table 3. Table 3. Pro-innovation bias implies that the innovation should be diffused and adopted by all members of a social system, that it should be diffused more rapidly, and that it should not be re-invented or rejected.

Individual blame bias holds that an individual is responsible for his or her problems, rather than the social system of which he or she is a part. Recall problem bias is a bi-product of the research process itself and results when individuals are asked to remember the time when they adopted a new idea or innovation.

Issue of equality bias is concerned with the consequences of an innovation and how the benefits of that innovation distribute within a social system. I observed all of these biases. For example, during the course of teacher interviews in this study, I noted the tendency of teachers to offer only positive remarks about their experiences with the adoption of the CT curriculum.

In other words, they tended to share only their successes with implementation of this innovation. They seemed more reluctant to offer descriptions of the problems they encountered unless they were prompted. This is an example of pro-innovation bias or social desirability bias. Teachers also tended to accept blame for not having successfully implemented CT in their classes. Some would make self-effacing comments about their limited experience with or knowledge of computer technology, when, in fact, the limitations of their Internet connections may have precluded successful implementation.

These self-effacing comments were sometimes made despite their knowledge of the Internet connection limitation. Rogers suggests alternative research approaches e. Recall bias will need to be accounted for by inquiries that explore the continued dissemination of CT during the school year. Another criticism of diffusion research is that the predominant focus of diffusion studies has been on successful diffusion events and that events where diffusion was unsuccessful have not been studied Henrich, This study effectively addressed this criticism when the design was expanded to include participants from school districts where CT may not have been implemented at all.

See Chapter 4 for a detailed discussion. Related Diffusion Research Similar to Roger's theoretical perspective is one that focuses on the transformation processes that move organizations towards change or adoption of new instructional innovations Kershaw, This three-step process is centered on individual behaviors. First, individuals must recognize that there is an urgent need for change in the organization.

Second, individuals must come to understand that they themselves must change. Finally, they must realize that they need to change the way they perform their roles in the organization. This model characterizes early adopters as techies' who experiment with every new technology that comes along. Mainstream faculty tends to focus more on problems, processes, and tasks at hand than on the tools that might be used to address them, and they prefer incremental change.

The Geoghegan model suggests that early adopters are often poor change agents due to their lack of focus on process. Their success in using technology to bring about qualitative improvements in teaching and learning, and the visibility that can accompany such success, can have an alienating effect on others.

It can foster a belief that most faculty members should be using technology and that greater access to technology and training is a prerequisite to success Geoghegan, TAM predicts that user acceptance of any technology is determined by: 1 Perceived usefulness The degree to which a person believes that the use of the new technology will enhance his or her performance; and 2 Perceived ease of use The degree to which a person believes the new technology will be free of effort.

Perceived usefulness is comparable to Rogers' construct of relative advantage, and the perceived ease of use is comparable to his idea of complexity. This very simplified two-dimensional model does not acknowledge the complexities of adoption behavior, whereas DOI includes a broader range of constructs such as compatibility, observability, and trialability as adoption characteristics.

In contrast to the TAM model, Reeves describes a more complex model that seeks to explain significant pedagogical dimensions of computer-based learning. This model describes fourteen pedagogical dimensions of computer- based education CBE in an effort to provide improved criteria for understanding, describing and evaluating CBE.

While these dimensions were identified as evaluative factors, they are suggestive of factors that may contribute to diffusion of CBE. These factors are in the philosophical, teacher, student and technical domains. Some of these dimensions or factors and their definitions validated adoption factors identified in the analysis of the observation and interview data collected in this study. For example, learner control was a factor that students and teachers liked about CT.

Students liked that they could direct their choices from various CT learning modules with the click of a mouse. Teachers liked that their students could move through the program at their own pace. A study of the introduction of integrated learning systems 1LS into schools suggests five stages of teacher participation in the implementation of ILS Clariana, These are: Novice, non-participatory, where a teacher drops off a class at the ILS computer laboratory; Novice participatory, where the teacher attends the classes but does not know ILS; Practitioner, where the teacher uses ILS progress reports to help pupils by remediation or re-teaching; 56 Integrator, who manipulates the ILS sequence so that it better matches the classroom instruction; and Extender, who has fully integrated the ILS into classroom curricula.

This teacher classification system suggests that teachers be extenders because they are required to be in the classroom when students were logged onto CT and to integrate it into their broader health-education curricula.

One on-line discussion of the diffusion of technology in K education focused on cost and instructional strategies Recesso. Using Rogers' DOI model and a cost analysis model, the discussants concluded that the widespread use of interface technology would result in low per student costs. To accomplish widespread use of technology it identified that teacher effectiveness is an integral issue related to the development and implementation of a technology-based interface.

One discussant stated that The drive to create this tool a technology-based interface makes the assumption that teachers are also technologists While the CT curriculum does not require that teachers be designers or developers of technology, it does require that they, to some extent, be content experts and, to a greater extent, that they be facilitators of the learning experience.

This online discussion concluded that successful classroom use of a technology-based learner interface would have to overcome barriers presented by teacher training, costs, and providing a system conducive to facilitating effective 57 instruction. Because training was provided to teachers who were participants in this study, the effectiveness of that training was examined in this investigation.

Relevance of Diffusion of Innovations School tobacco education programs like CT are an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control program CDC, However, knowledge of effective school-based strategies to influence adolescents on important health topics, such as tobacco use, will have little or no impact if they are not effectively disseminated to teachers and school officials.

Computer-assisted instruction has been used in schools for several years now. However, use of programs delivered over the Internet is still novel Buller, Thus, in DOI terms, teachers who are currently using the Internet as an instructional tool are likely to be either early adopters or early majority users of computer-based instructional tools.

The DOI model postulates that early users are apt to be attuned to communications from individuals and groups outside of their informal social environment e. It is reasonable to expect then that direct marketing of the CT program and its computer based attributes by outside entities such as the developers of CT would reach early adopting schools and teachers and induce them to learn more about and use the CT program.

New adopters look to earlier adopters for evidence that an Internet-based program is feasible and effective in the classroom. These adopters depend on teachers who are opinion leaders for information about the Consider This program. Identification and understanding of the diffusion or communication constructs that promote use of new or innovative instructional tools 58 within and among schools and school districts will help facilitate adoption of new tools such as the Consider This, Internet-based curriculum.

It provides a structure for applying theories, in order that the most appropriate intervention strategies can be identified and implemented. Diagnosis and Evaluation. The PRECEDE portion of the model addresses planning variables including: individual behavior, environmental, organizational, administrative and policy factors. This model is based on the premise that a diagnosis of the educational environment is needed before an effective intervention can be implemented.

Glanz explains that this model is not a theory per se, since it does not attempt to explain or predict the relationship among factors thought to be associated with an outcome of interest. It is however, a structure within which various theoretical approaches can be applied. This aspect of the PRECEDE model had particular appeal to the investigator, since he was interested in explaining not only the social system processes from the perspective of Diffusion of Innovations theory, but also those individual and environmental factors that influence utilization of health education curriculum in schools.

Because impact and outcome evaluations of the Consider This curriculum were not within the domain of this investigation and the PROCEED portion of the model represents implementation and evaluation phases, this research project will use only constructs from the PRECEDE portion of the model and more specifically, constructs associated with Phase 4 of this model, the educational diagnosis phase.

Three kinds of causes are identified predisposing factors, enabling factors, and reinforcing factors. They include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personal preferences, existing skills, and self-efficacy beliefs. In other words, predisposing factors include any characteristics of a person or population that motivate behavior prior to the occurrence of that behavior. Enabling factors are those precursors that allow motivation to be realized, directly or indirectly, through an environmental factor.

Enabling factors include programs, services, resources, or skills necessary for behavioral or environmental outcomes to be realized. They facilitate action and any skill or resource required to attain a specific behavior. Examples of enabling factors include accessibility to a resource, availability of that resource, and skills necessary to access or use a resource. Reinforcing factors are those elements that appear subsequent to behavior and that provide continuing reward or incentive for the behavior to become persistent.

These factors include social support, peer influence, significant others, and vicarious reinforcement. Simply put, these factors are rewards or punishments following or anticipated as a consequence of a behavior. They serve to strengthen the motivation for behavior. The most significant value is using the PRECEDE model was the identification of factors that, if modified, would most likely result in behavior change. Prioritization of factors was based on the weight of research evidence or relative importance and changeability.

This investigation combined constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations the social systems approach and PRECEDE models individual behavioral and environmental approaches to better understand the factors that contribute to diffusion of the Consider This, Internet-based tobacco education curriculum.

Using the Diffusion of Innovations model and constructs from the PRECEDE model, this study described social change and diffusion processes and identified predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that influenced diffusion of the Consider This online curriculum. Each of these models defines its constructs on the assets side of the diffusion equation. Both models are stage-based models that describe processes leading up to program or innovation implementation.

The Diffusion of Innovations model represents a social process that study participants went through to disseminate, adopt, and implement the Consider This curriculum. While participants did not actually develop this innovation the first step in the Diffusion of Innovations model , they did engage in activities to develop capacity for implementation e. Cl researchers developed the innovation. While the PRECEDE model represents a conscious administrative planning process, participants teachers and administrators may have unconsciously used a model similar to this one to diagnose tobacco use in their schools and to plan their response to identified problems.

The common point of interface for these models is the point of implementation or adoption. Interview and observational data collected during this investigation were fitted to this two-dimensional theoretical framework. The time period and contexts under investigation are represented by the stages that are italicized in Figure 3.

The independent and interactive factors specific to each theoretical stage will be discussed in this research. While the overall study w'as initially conceived and designed to be contained within a single school district Douglas County Schools [DCSD] , using only qualitative methods, many of the intended interviews with DCSD administrators and school principals did not take place because of difficulties scheduling and keeping appointments w'ith the study population.

A brief telephone conversation with a principal who called me on the telephone to cancel an appointment, made it clear that middle school principals and school district administrators in this school district were very busy people who would not likely make time in their schedule for the interview. This brief telephone conversation also suggested that decisions regarding health education curricula selection were most often made by teachers a suggestion that w;as later verified through this study.

Hence, a focused, DCSD district-wide study using interviews as the exclusive source of information was cancelled after interview's had already been conducted with seven DCSD teachers and one administrator. An unforeseen benefit of this change in study design was that it enabled the collection of data front school district employees throughout Colorado whose district had not made a prior commitment to broadly implement CT, like DCSD had made. By expanding the study to include a broader population of study subjects, data became available from participants w'here the adoption of CT was not as widespread as it appeared to be in DCSD.

Making this change in the study design addressed the criticism that diffusion research had predominantly focused on successful diffusion events, and that events w'here diffusion was unsuccessful had not been studied. A cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire that was mailed to all CT trainees at the school where they were employed was selected as the method of choice, since it enabled efficient, low-cost contact with each of the CT trainees.

Email addresses were not available for all potential participants so that method of distribution w'as dismissed. The primary purposes of this survey were to: 1 collect quantitative data that w'as more readily collected using survey methods than interview methods; and 2 expand the pool of study subjects who would be interviewed in the qualitative portion of the study.

This survey w;as not a part of the training seminar evaluation, but was conducted as a separate, special study. Survey Methods Research Design Three components of survey design were considered when this research was undertaken. These components were described as total survey design Fowler, Backstrom and Hursh-Cesars Characteristics of Survey Research were used as guidelines to help assure that the survey data would be free of bias and reliable for decision making.

These guiding characteristics define survey research as: 1. This approach was possible since each of the study participants had signed consent releases at the training session they attended to allow follow-up studies by project researchers. It was also possible since the estimated cost of its administration was within the budget that I allowed for this data collection.

Since I was still employed by the Principal Investigator of the CT research project, I was able to obtain training session attendance rosters with subject identifying and contact information for purposes of this research. The survey sample 66 included all of the school district and local health related personnel who attended one of the eight CT training seminars offered in December of or January of Questions were derived to answer theoretically sound inquiries that would address the specific aims of the study.

The survey questionnaire can be found in Appendix A. The procedures used to develop the mailed questionnaire were procedures that I have used in previous studies. These procedures are those generally recommended by Dillman , the Total Design Method for surveys, Aday and Czar and Blair The steps employed were: 1 determine the kind of information sought; 2 structure a question; and 3 choose the words carefully.

Attitudes, beliefs, behaviors and attributes were the general types of information sought Dillman, Field testing of the questionnaire on a subset of the study population would have biased their responses to the final questionnaire, so this method of pre-testing the instrument w'as not used. The draft survey instrument was reviewed for clarity and contextual language by a school administrator personal friend who was not a potential participant in the survey.

Changes were made in accordance with feedback provided by this third party. The logic employed in determining the content and structure of questions is described in the following paragraphs. Detailing the structure and content of the 67 questions helped identify the data processing requirements. To assure that survey respondents were eligible for the study the first question on the survey instrument asked respondents if they attended one of the CT training seminars.

As mentioned above, all but one of 83 respondents answered affirmatively. Since there were two principal groups of seminars trainees, teaching and non- teaching school district staff, and the ability to implement the CT curriculum in the classroom was limited to the teaching group, a question was developed to determine the position held by each participant question 2.

The innovation-decision process is the process through which an individual or decision-making unit passes 1 from first knowledge of an innovation, 2 to forming at attitude toward an innovation persuasion , 3 to a decision to adopt or reject. Therefore, determining how teaching and non-teaching staff first heard about CT knowledge is a critical step in the dissemination research process. Figure 4. This figure and the model it represents drove development of the survey questionnaire.

It also provided a guide to the analysis of the survey and interview data. Question 3 was developed to answer the question as to how knowledge of the innovation came about. The discrete responses for this question were informed by the seven interviews conducted with DCSD employees in the early stage of this investigation and with his knowledge of Consider This promotional activity that occurred prior to the training seminars.

The possible responses to question 3 acknowledged that adopters would likely hear about this innovation through the 68 promotional activities the primary source of the change agent CT project staff and secondary sources their social networks. Question 4, What factors influenced your registration and attendance at this training seminar?

It was developed to address the persuasion 69 stage illustrated in Figure 4. Here once again, the DCSD interviews conducted in the early stages of this investigation helped inform the response choices that were offered. Each of the response categories added was associated with at least one of three of Rogers' rate of adoption characteristics for an innovation i.

For example, substitute teacher expenses were reimbursed, a response choice, was categorized as a factor that made it easier for teachers to try CT trialability. Table 4. The perceived quality or value of the seminar could have contributed to the adoption or rejection of CT. Non- teachers skipped to question These questions enabled the collection of data on frequency of classroom use, the school year that it was used, satisfaction with the CT program, and if teachers did not use CT, reasons for non-use.

In summary, these questions provide a measure of the extent to which CT was adopted by teachers. This data was used to determine the relationship between these self-reported adopter categories and their use of CT.

Comfort with and training related to computer technology are enabling factors that allow participant motivations to be realized. The closing questions were used to record respondent demographic descriptors when they received their bachelors degree, if they had an advanced degree and the type of degree, gender, age and race and smoking behavior use of cigarettes in the past 30 days.

The final question of the survey asked the respondent if he or she was "willing to help the investigator with this research by being interviewed on the telephone. This question enabled the identification of respondents who would become participants in the qualitative portion of the study. Training seminar registrant address information was extracted from CT project files, mailing labels were printed, and letters, including the survey instrument, were mailed to all seminar attendees.

A cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and asking potential participants to complete the enclosed survey questionnaire was mailed in late February of to all persons on the CT training seminar attendee list. Two follow-up reminder postcards were mailed to non-respondents at two-week intervals following the initial mailing.

All responses were received by early April of One person returned the survey and indicated that they had not attended any one of the CT training seminars and was therefore deemed ineligible for the study. Therefore, there w'ere 82 eligible respondents who were included in the analysis of the survey data. At this point in time, the completed survey questionnaires were forwarded to Abacus Statistical Consultants for data entry into an Excel database. Data Processing As questionnaires were returned they were logged-in and separated into two piles.

One pile contained those questionnaires whose respondents declined to be interviewed and the other included those who agreed. Email messages were sent to those participants who agreed to be interviewed to schedule a date and time for 72 a telephone interview. If there was no reply to the email message, approximately two weeks from the logged-in date of the returned survey, phone calls were made to schedule the interviews.

After the telephone interviews were scheduled, the survey data were entered into an Excel data file by a data entry operator affiliated with Abacus and frequency distributions for each question and the data file returned to the investigator. The receipt of this data signaled the initiation of the analysis activity. Analysis Methods Completed questionnaires were reviewed for completeness and clarity of responses before they were forwarded for data entry.

Extraneous marks were removed from the completed questionnaires and responses verified by range checks. Frequency tables of questionnaire variables were provided by Abacus and cross tabulations produced after review of the preliminary tables. Confidence intervals or the Fisher Exact Test was used to test statistical associations between variables.

Adoption of CT was limited to the teacher group, since this is the subgroup of study participants that has routine access to students and works regularly in the classroom, the intended implementation environment for CT. It was important therefore to examine the adoption behaviors of this group separately from the non-teachers. It was assumed that non-teachers do not routinely plan lessons or implement curricula in the classroom, two requirements for successful use of CT.

Seventy-five percent of the respondents were female one person did not respond to the gender question. The average age of all of study participants was The average ages for teachers and non-teachers were Islander 0 0 0 Am. The smokers were proportionately distributed among the position categories with three smokers being teachers.

Overall, more than half of the respondents 43 had advanced degrees, with all but one of those being a Master's degree and that one was a Doctoral degree. As can be seen in Table 4. See Table 4. Fourteen percent Among first to try it early adopter After a few others try it early majority After most others try it late majority Long after most others try it laggards Total Teachers 20 32 5 0 57 This finding may be influenced by the inclusion of information technology staff in the non-teacher group.

IT staff may see themselves as early adopters and the organizations that they work for as later adopters, thus reflecting a likely bias towards adoption of technology innovations. They were also likely biased toward adoption of innovations. This difference seems to diminish somewhat when the early adopter and early majority categories are combined. Nearly one teacher in six Self-reported personal innovation adoption practices or behaviors were classified using the same DOI adopter classifications as that for the school districts.

One-third Ten respondents While the percentage of participants that were personally categorized as being on the early adopter side of the normal curve early adopters and early majority was slightly greater than that for their school districts behavior This suggests that some respondents felt that their school district was more innovative than themselves. With greater than three quarters of the participants self-classifying in these categories, this suggests that self-reporting of adopter classification is significantly favorably biased.

As Rogers suggests One-third of all respondents indicated that they were very comfortable with computer technology A surprising finding was that Frequency of Teacher Use of Consider This The frequency of use of the Consider This curriculum in the classroom is the strongest indicator of its dissemination among study participants who were trained in Among the entire study group, teachers were the only subgroup that could implement CT in the classroom.

The non-teacher respondents counselors, nurses, IT personnel, administrators, non-school district personnel do not routinely 79 I have instructional responsibilities in the classroom. Of the 82 school personnel who responded to the survey, 59 indicated that they were teachers and 57 of those responded to the frequency of use question. Therefore, the following analyses on use of CT are limited to the teacher subgroup.

Of the teachers who responded to the survey, This group failed to move past the decision stage to the implementation stage. See Figure 4. This group included the trial 80 and temporary users and the adopters. None of the teacher groups were immune from discontinued use or later adoption. So it is important to recognize that this cross-sectional review of CT use does not imply that eighteen percent of the teachers who responded to the survey surveyed the adoption group continued to use CT after this survey was conducted or that they were even using it at the time of the survey.

As Figure 4. Later adoption by those who had rejected CT is also possible. These adoption dynamics influence cross-sectional analyses of adoption rates. Dissemination The dissemination stage, the second stage following innovation development in the diffusion process model was the first stage to be assessed in this survey.

For purposes of this study, those persons who were eligible to be classified in this stage were all of the participants who attended one of the CT training seminars. Those who returned a survey, a subset of this group, were those who were classified as having reached this dissemination stage for the analysis.

How teachers initially heard about CT and the offering of CT training seminars first knowledge of CT may be an important determinant of the most effective means for promoting or disseminating CT. Survey respondents checked all of the methods by which they had heard about 81 the CT curriculum and specified the means by which they heard about CT that were not listed by describing them on the other category response line.

The means by which teachers heard about CT were grouped for this analysis into the following three groups. Promotional actions brochure or poster received in the mail or CT project staff contacted them directly. In-school network i. Out-of-school network write-in responses a teacher in another school; health education consulting organization; and local tobacco control coalition.

Did the means by which teachers heard about the CT curriculum influence use in the classroom? Since CT had not previously been promoted in Colorado schools prior to the CDPHE-funded dissemination project, the brochure and poster packet mailing to Colorado middle, junior and senior high schools was likely the only way that school personnel could have heard about CT. In Table 4. Participants w'ere permitted to check all responses that applied. Column 3 is the total of columns 2 and 3, and column 5 is the total of columns 4 and 2.

Over all groups of adoption types, the data in Table 4. Over half of the 82 survey respondents On face value, it could be concluded that the most important method for communicating with teachers about CT was the in-school network. However, that conclusion does not take into account the time dimension or sequence of events that led to teacher knowledge of CT.

The promotional materials 83 and other dissemination actions phone calls by CT project staff that were employed created knowledge of CT and activated in-school communication networks, thereby initiating the diffusion process. Channels of communication outside of the in-school network column 4, Table 4. Only 8. The numbers in each cell of Table 4. Did promotional actions or in-school communication channels have a greater influence on eventual adoption of this curriculum? Adoption, implementation and maintenance of an innovation were the desired outcomes of the diffusion process, so it was important to test the influence of these two dissemination methods on those outcomes.

Because of small numbers, the Chi-Square statistic could not be used to test differences in usage of CT between the teachers represented in columns 1 and 4 of Table 4. Instead, confidence intervals were computed around the proportions in columns 1 and 4 which are independent groups. The confidence intervals were very wide and overlapped, supporting that there is no difference. Those factors are: trialability, compatibility, complexity, relative advantage, and observability.

The results of using CT. Observability is therefore obscured just by the nature of the teacher - student relationship and a teacher's proximity to observe student smoking behavior and initiation of smoking. Therefore, observability as a diffusion factor was excluded from this analysis. Complexity was also excluded since it could not be determined for questionnaire development how teachers would define CT complexity in their own terms. Complexity is discussed in Chapter 5 of this study as it is described The re searc h question answere d in thi s study was, Is the exte nt to which teachers identify individual adoptive behaviors or characteristics, e n vironmenta l factors conducive to adoption, and CT characteristics associated with the DOI and PRECEDE mode ls assoc i ated with ado pti o n of the CT curriculum?

Twenty-three face-to-face and telephone interview s with educators from around the state of Colorado helped enrich the data that was collected via the survey. Interviews were recorded on audio tape and transcripts entered into a t ex t analysis software package to facilitate coding and analysis of data. Some of the barriers to diff u sion and adoption included: attrition turnover of teachers; discontinued training program for CT; too few computers; poor access to the computers in schools scheduling and restricted use ; apathy toward classroom change; and frustration with and l ac k of IT support on technical problems.

This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend it s publication. This i s a l so dedicated to my parents Florence Young and the late, Walter J. Young, who a lways encouraged a n d s upport ed continued education.

I would a l so like to thank Dr. Kitty Corbett for her guidance throughout the planning conduct and writing of this dissertation and to my dissertation committee members who read and edited earlier vers i ons of this work.. David Buller, Vice President Health Communications Division of the Cooper Institute for his suppot1, patience and tolerance of an employee who was often preoccupied with his dissertation work.

I 02 D ata Tra n scr iption Coding a nd Analysis I 06 Findings Each team in the course will receive a mentor. The mentor works with the team throughout the semester to develop their business plan and to work on their pitch. What the students are being exposed to now is very important. Mark Munoz, professor of management and international business at Millikin University, and new faculty member Dr.

Yuhan Hua, assistant professor of entrepreneurship, both lead the four sections of the Business Creation course. Munoz has brought mentors to his class in previous years, and with Dr. Hua needing mentors for this year, the mentoring program was started. Munoz has, and we wanted to do the same with Dr. There will be 11 mentors for Dr. The winning team receives a cash prize to use toward an international experience with Millikin, such as an immersion trip or a study abroad course.

Freeman, who owns a consulting firm and is a MBA graduate, says he had a mentor who helped him launch his business two years ago. What Millikin is doing is phenomenal in terms of the involvement with the community. I know how it felt to bounce ideas off of someone and to be a think partner, and I want to be that for them. During the academic year, Millikin embarked on the process to create a fusion office that would offer lifecycle-advising support for students from their first year through their senior year and beyond.

Previously, Millikin had an Office of. Over a five-year period, we had seen a steady decline in the use of our career services unit and the narrow set of. Thus, the Center for Academic and. The CAPP stewards programs on both ends of the. The CAPP. In , Millikin also became a strengthsbased campus. In partnership with Gallup Inc. CAPP staff also became certified strength coaches and utilize the strengths-based framework in much of their advising,.

Over the last two years, we have seen many other college campuses follow suit with their own fusion offices that. When she was told that she needed to limit her time reading due to issues with her vision, she was traumatized. A native of Paris, Ill. Because of her experience, Martin found her calling and set a goal of becoming an optometrist herself.

With her career aspiration in mind, Martin was determined to find a school that was going to prepare her for future graduate studies. For example, Dr. But before she leaves Millikin, she has a bit of advice for her fellow Millikin students. You can really make a difference. Each year, certain departments conduct a program review to analyze the quality of the academic experience provided to.

An initiative coming from the mathematics. Mathematics faculty leaders also helped develop a new pre-. As an example of excellence, Dr. We have an outstanding record of professional success of our humanities alumni, and. Our students have already lived the life of being a historian, a writer, an editor, a publisher, a conference presenter, a debater,.

Each concentration. However, after Gabriel started researching more into the venerated faculty at Millikin, she decided to take a closer look at the Big Blue. Gabriel knew that studying vocal performance would be a major aspect of her education and when she contacted the faculty at the Millikin School of Music, she gained a sense of belonging.

Gabriel is double majoring in commercial music — with an emphasis in vocal performance — and business management, with an entrepreneurship minor. From the moment that Gabriel stepped on campus, her positive attitude and vocal talent allowed her to network her way to getting involved in a plethora of organizations on campus.

Perhaps the most noteworthy is an audition-based vocal jazz group called BluBop. I grew in confidence and experience because of BluBop. It truly opened my eyes to jazz music, and I love it. The Center is over 60, square. Millitrax has been in need of an updated console for a few years, and it has finally arrived — and thanks to the hard work. Additionally, faculty in the School of Music are developing. Dance is Sound Designer Anna Alex, who will also teach audio courses for music and arts technology students.

Finally, we are in the midst of a thrilling season of concerts, plays, musicals, art exhibitions and more for the His passion for helping others has led to aspirations to work as a nurse in the intensive care unit ICU or with anesthesia. In high school, Hayes was unsure whether or not nursing was his calling or if Millikin was the right choice for him.

However, his time at Millikin thus far has reassured him that he is in the right place. I feel as if I am a part of something much bigger than myself. Deborah Slayton, dean emeritus of the College of Professional Studies CPS , retired at the end of the academic year, following 39 years of service to Millikin. Pam Lindsey, director of the School of Nursing, assumed the role of interim dean for the academic year. In response to an external review conducted was replaced with the sport and recreation accompanied by curricular changes which.

Krieger has gained valuable hands-on experience from Performance Learning. Currently an intern in the labs department at State Farm, Krieger is also a senior consultant for Millikin University Performance Consulting MUPC , a student-run venture that specializes in performance consulting work. The revamped finance major already has eight students enrolled, and there are currently.

Our students come from many parts of the United States and. Last but not least, we are a school with a mission. This is what attracted many of us to our school and what continues to attract others. All these things are critical to the world. We know they will ask, demand, suggest and. In attendance is Mrs. A lifelong love of music and the performing arts prompted Mrs. Ten years — with the help of privateduty nurses and KFAC staff — spent as a fixture at nearly every show.

Paul L. McKay, honored both Mrs. Kirkland and her transformative gift:. Kirkland being greeted by President McKay and his wife on opening night. You see children at events. And I think their lives are going to be broader for it. Each year, hundreds of Millikin students express themselves through music, theatre and visual arts, and many proudly display their talents via Kirkland Fine Arts Center.

KFAC, named in honor of both Mrs. Kirkland and her husband, Ernest T. Kirkland, has been known for spotlighting this kind of artistic expression for five decades. And after that, Dennis School started their own step group. A dynamic conductor and educator who has spent the last decade maximizing the artistic potential of a wide variety of ensembles, Seapy is leading the Millikin University Symphonic Wind Ensemble succeeding the legendary Dr.

Gary Shaw who retired in July after 37 years at Millikin. Growing up overseas, Seapy started playing music on piano, clarinet and saxophone all before high school, and stuck with clarinet and saxophone up until becoming a conductor. Seapy says the best part about being a conductor is the interpersonal aspect. Seapy led the Symphonic Wind Ensemble in his first concert of the year on Oct. It moves your heart, it moves your brain and it moves your feet.

Corey Seapy. Hopefully through rehearsals and performances, students are loving music more, growing as musicians and improving their skillset. That will be an exciting collaboration with a composer. Prior to living in Kansas City, Seapy conducted and taught in Massachusetts, where he served as music director of the Charles River Wind Ensemble, an auditioned adult group in Metro-Boston, and as director of bands at Ipswich High School.

Most college students are no strangers to the burdens that come with financing their education. For students whose majors require unpaid internships, those burdens are felt even more acutely. As he learned more about what his friends had experienced throughout their educational journeys, DeBo felt led to make a difference in the lives of individuals working in the helping professions.

To that end, DeBo, a Normal, Ill. The endowed fund is designed to benefit students participating in unpaid internships with non-profit organizations. Through this opportunity, DeBo became engaged with Dove, Inc. She had a big impact on me while I was here. Desiring a more focused approach, Pepping wanted to find an internship that would afford her supervised time specifically in her field of study. For nearly two years, Pepping served Hope as its art intern. Now a graduate student in the.

Seattle area, Pepping finds herself still reflecting upon her internship experience today. In addition to serving Hope for two years as an unpaid intern, Pepping made the drive to Springfield to work with the students multiple times a week, using money from her own pocket to fund her travel. DeBo respects that kind of commitment and sacrifice, and he believes it should be rewarded. As a professor of social work who serves alongside students committed to the helping professions, Garrison is excited about the impact that the VHP fund will be able to have on others.

She believes that it particularly speaks volumes to have human services students receive much-needed support from an individual from another field of study. It is a hard job. I think it really validates that their work is important. They're not just helpers. DeBo believes strongly that the VHP internship gives individuals, particularly young alumni, a way to make a tangible difference in the lives of Millikin students.

We need people doing that work. Many little girls think about their wedding day their entire lives. They envision wearing the most beautiful dress they will ever own, clutching a bouquet of sweet-smelling flowers and walking down the aisle to unite themselves with the person of their dreams. They picture celebrating the day surrounded by the people they love the most, playfully shoving cake into the face of their new spouse and being whisked away on a relaxing honeymoon to parts unknown.

James Catholic Church to start their new life together. In speaking about her groom, Holly described Jacob, an insurance producer with Arthur J. I married up! It was everything they had hoped for — and then some. McCormick suddenly started feeling faint and asked his son to fetch a cold rag, then collapsed. Holly saw McCormick lying across a couch, with his wife yelling for someone to dial Immediately switching out of bride mode and into nurse mode, Holly dragged McCormick onto the floor and felt for a pulse.

Not finding one, she instructed Jacob to go get her bridesmaids — who were also nurses — and began administering CPR. After a number of compressions, McCormick started moving, and the bridal party of nursing professionals sprang into action.

They hooked McCormick up to an automatic external defibrillator, took his blood pressure and got his medical information from his family. Ultimately diagnosed. She also publishes and presents on political cartoons as social critique. For more information, visit her website at www.

Judith continues to sing in her church choir and play in the handbell choir. The Campbells live in Everett, Wash. Robert played trumpet on the tour. In addition, one of his musical compositions was featured in a performance by the Millikin-Decatur Symphony Orchestra. The award was presented during a banquet at which composer Peter Schickele known for P.

Bach was the featured speaker. Mitchell, who retired in , is a professor emeritus at the University of MassachusettsBoston. She is married to Dr. Dennis Backstrom, who has retired from his position as an emergency medicine physician with Passavant Memorial Hospital. For more on Dr. Thomas, see millikin. He writes that he feels blessed to retire and spend more time with his daughters, sons-in-law and grandchildren. His retirement plans include traveling, hiking and camping.

He teaches a Sunday school class for adults with developmental disabilities at his local church. In this position, Katrina assists families with securing a financial future for their loved ones. She also served as assistant director for the Lincoln Junior High School play for 30 years.

Rebecca plans to spend her retirement visiting historical sites in the United States and spending time with her grandchildren. He plans to dedicate his retirement time to horticulture, electronics, carpentry and travel. He has visited all lower 48 states and will visit Alaska and Hawaii in the near future. Shortly after retirement, he flew to the Oregon coast with his bicycle and began riding eastward. On Sept. The board oversees the Cook County healthcare system, civil and criminal justice systems and the forest preserve.

The organization, a c 3 charity, is a group of breast cancer survivors and loved ones committed to educating women and medical professionals on the importance of breast tissue density as a factor in diagnosing breast cancer. The organization has been instrumental in the passage of density information legislation, which requires radiologists to include density results in mammography reports.

He is the deputy treasurer-clerk for the City of Tallahassee. Bonnie and her husband, Ronald, live in Decatur. They spend the winter months in Florida, where Bonnie keeps up with her medical care and quilting.

He also serves as president of the Atlanta Artists Center, a c 3 organization, performs as a drummer throughout Atlanta and enjoys playing golf. Shortly after his appointment, he helped merge First United with St. Thomas United Methodist. He manages the Decatur team of 28 employees and oversees the firm-wide agricultural team. She is an assistant professor of nursing at Resurrection University in Chicago.

In this position, Lou is primarily responsible for carrying out the policies established by the Common Council, oversees day-to-day activities of the city and supervises city department heads. Gretchen serves as commissioner of the forest preserve. In this position, Deborah provides pre-award grant submission support to University of Wisconsin campuses to help enrich research and scholarship.

Jennifer is responsible for donor outreach and services, including on-air, digital, direct mail and stewardship for annual fund, planned giving and major gifts. Peters, Mo. Louis is assistant director of the honors program at Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville. He coordinates the advising function for the honors program, develops recruitment strategies for students underrepresented in honors and works with faculty to create complementary curricular and co-curricular activities.

He is also president of the university staff senate. Amy lives in Bourbonnais, Ill. In her new role, Michelle provides leadership for education activities designed to ensure that diverse audiences interact with the museum. The team finished his inaugural season with a 21 and 8 record.

He also teaches physical science at the school. Dwight is a certified information system security professional and has secure software lifecycle and ethical hacker certifications. He also volunteers as a technical mentor with the Cyberpatriot program, a cybersecurity program designed for high school students.

The GSFC provides student financial aid and educational services for Georgians of all ages to help ensure access to an affordable education beyond high school. Monica has visited over 30 countries and all seven continents, having finally visited Antarctica for her 40th birthday.

She also has served ten years as an executive member of the National Association of Social Workers board of directors. In June of , she married Jerry Zmuda, an engineer with Siemens. Mary and Jerry welcomed a son, Henry, on July 24, She currently lives in Collierville, Tenn. Beth also serves as an outreach volunteer for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation and helps support families with loved ones newly diagnosed with type one diabetes.

Beth is also a founding member of the Colorado chapter of insulin4all, a branch of T1 International. Melissa has had the opportunity to host television shows, visit the archives at the Skywalker Ranch and travel to various conventions to speak about her career. She wants to encourage others living with illness or disability to remember that they are not alone.

Louis, welcomed their third son, Tyson Leroy, in September Tyson joins his older brothers, Clayton Edward, 7, and Austin Jacob, 4. Nicholas is a firefighter and paramedic with Galesburg Fire and Rescue, and Janice is a senior communications representative with Caterpillar.

His practice areas include local government law, family law, labor and employment, estate planning and business advising. The festival brought together choreographers and musicians from across the nation for a unique, cutting-edge festival that married live music and dance. For more information, visit tiffanylawsondance.

Leif joins his brother, Nels, 5. Zimmerman is an assistant professor of biology at Millikin University. John is a title underwriter for State Farm. They live in Decatur. She volunteers at an animal shelter and also helped start Games for Troops Inc. She joins her older sister, Gwendolyn Mae. Carson joins older brother, Elliott Mason, 3. He received the Podium Award from the Missouri Choral Directors Association, which is presented to an individual who has made exemplary contributions to the choral arts as evidenced by distinguished performance.

Greta is corporate sales manager for Hyatt Regency in Milwaukee. Shane is a mechanical engineer with Milwaukee Tool. They live in Greenfield, Wis. She oversees all account managers in the department and manages her own book of clients for employer group benefits.

The Bennetts live in Portland. While maintaining a fulltime teaching load, he is completing his doctoral dissertation. Danielle is university writer in the Marketing and Media Relations department. This accreditation requires the completion of multiple Federal Emergency Management Agency courses.

Matthew and his wife, Michelle, welcomed a daughter, Sophie, on April 5, Sophie joins her brother, Hunter, 4. She is a microbiology supervisor with Avexis. They welcomed a daughter, Hollis Jane, on March 18, The two met while teaching English to Chinese elementary school students in Shenzhen.

Javier and Sarah welcomed a son, Javier Paul, born Nov. She is the recipient of the School of Nursing Alumnus of the Year award. Jeffrey is also a Big Brothers Big Sisters mentor. Jacob is director of sales for Princeton Group Sports Inc. Morgan is an injury prevention specialist for Amazon. They live in Lisle, Ill. Charles, Mo. Casey is senior conference services manager at The Westin St. Matthew is an optometrist. On July 25, , he married Gabriela Randazzo. Gabriela is a marketing and communication specialist with Dover Corporation.

She and her husband, Steven, live in Decatur. On Oct. Lexie and Emily live in Charlottesville. She has co-authored three academic peer-reviewed publications, two of which have been published in The Cancer Journal. She enjoys volunteering for Hillsong Church. She provides case management services for people with all types of disabilities.

Schultz professional development grantee. In , he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters. Ed was an associate professor of chemistry emeritus and retired in after 35 years of service to the University. The family requests memorial gifts be made to the Dr. Main St. He was chair of the Department of Speech and Theatre at Millikin from to Petersburg, Fla. The family requests memorial gifts be made to the Robert R.

He served on the Millikin Alumni Association board. Carl Moore Jr. Pulaski, Ill. Joseph, Ill. The mission of Millikin Magazine is to engage alumni, friends, parents and other constituents in the life of the University, to communicate See More. ALUM alumnews millikin. White President, Millikin University As we move through this, my final year as president of Millikin, I am thinking about the last six years and the work we have to do together over the coming months.

As we search for the person who will become the 16th president of this great University, and the days march by, I feel a great urgency to accomplish all I can to increase the vitality and strength of our community. During these exciting times, I invite us to consider: what is Millikin?

Or, more directly, who is Millikin? Millikin is more than buildings or this plot of ground. As we look back over the six years we have been together, let us ask ourselves not only what we have accomplished, but also what we have become together. How is our Millikin different? We can see the change in our campus, but I wonder how we feel about this community?

It is more than feeling appreciative for your education or for the impact Millikin has on the Decatur community. However, I am astonished when I meet alumni who feel indebted to MU, with awe- inspiring stories of how Millikin has changed their lives, but have not moved to become stakeholders who own the future of their University through their active and necessary support.

Millikin, too, is a community of people invested in we want in the next president? We have much work to do now and in and who we can become. As I tell the graduates for the rest of our lives. Millikin is a moveable feast because our ways of being in the world, our language, gestures, ways of thinking and doing, are shaped by the Millikin community.

Who is Millikin? We all are. The first- practice and action. With outstanding academic programs, new offerings, competitive athletic teams and an excellent and dedicated faculty, Millikin really is universities in the country. The quality of the first-year class remains "Millikin's hallmark practice of students in the freshmen class. Millikin also Performance Learning is a state-wide, regional, national and now, international, draw," said Millikin President Dr.

President White spoke about the community's vision for and of itself in a speech titled "Who is our City? Building Millikin is an investment in ourselves," he said. MU2go APP Want to learn more about upcoming events and frequently used apps; and information options or the latest Millikin news?

This fall, as special events. With the MU2go app, on Millikin University's campus, daily Millikin University launched its first mobile app called "MU2go," an app that provides quick access to content for students, faculty, families and friends who interact with the Big Blue community.

MU2go is a hybrid application available for both iOS and Android devices. It features content, filtered down by target audience, so only one application is needed for all users. Since spring , Schroeder has trained and worked with 32 students in her research lab, as well as helped mentor seven students in other labs due to overlap between their research interests.

Millikin student-athletes came together to do their part in supporting the food drive by gathering on the evening before the food drive outside Frank M. Monroe has been actively involved in celebrating Illinois' rich history. In February , Dr. Monroe was elected to the Board of Directors of the Abraham Lincoln Association and is currently serving a three-year term.

An expert on global health, public health nursing and health management, Dr. Bam is spending the academic year teaching courses on global and public health in the College of Professional Studies. Bam is also co-teaching two courses; one called Health and Pollution and the second titled Diverse Populations.

Bam says it's always been her passion to help people which led her to becoming a nurse. The Big Blue would finish the race with two runners in the Top 10 with Morgan The third place finish by the Big Blue men was the best finish for Millikin since Julius W. Their faithful support students attain their dream of a Millikin education. Tomlinson and Juanita Tomlinson Gates Scholarship, which is awarded annually to one or more deserving students majoring in music with a minimum 3. The Barnetts are members of the Millikin Associates and the Millikin College of Fine Arts Patrons Society, and faithfully attend Associates meetings as well as many other University events and functions.

Ritchie has used his banking expertise to help several community organizations set up endowments to ensure long-term support. Current partners of the firm are Erik C. Brechnitz Business Experience Fund to provide financial assistance for travel and lodging expenses incurred by Tabor School of Business students who have secured an internship. Erik Brechnitz served on the Millikin Board of Trustees from to and now serves as a trustee emeritus.

Brechnitz is currently chairman of the Marco Island City Council. Faithful supporters of the Millikin Fund, the couple also created the Donald and Nancy McIntyre Scholarship Fund and have supported capital campaigns and many special projects.

He has also generously supported the Millikin Fund, student scholarships, athletic teams and many capital projects. In , she was mobilized in support of Hurricane Katrina, followed by deployments to Kosovo and Afghanistan. Currently the highest-ranking Judge Advocate General in the Illinois Army National Guard, she was appointed associate circuit judge in In , she was elected circuit a doctorate in chemistry from the awarded a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.

Formerly a postdoctoral research associate at Los Alamos National Laboratory, she was a remote guest lecturer for Millikin and discussed working in the governmental chemistry sector. His Providence Celtics track teams have won three Chicago Catholic League CCL championships, two sectional championships and placed second at state, while the football teams have garnered nine state championships. Chosen for the Wheaton All-Tournament Team as a freshman, the four-year standout set a number of school records.

With rebounds in 91 games, she remains in seventh place all-time for rebounds in a career. Her knowledge and love of the game have led to 25 years with the West Wilson Basketball Association, a youth program in Mount Juliet, Tenn. She finished her 18th year as head volleyball coach last season with career wins — the most victories of any volleyball coach in Millikin history.

Kiick earned those awards in , when both teams brought home conference championships. With your help, we can make next year's festivities, Oct. Infield Design The infield has been designed and the field has been calibrated to provide the speed of play best fitting the desired play of Millikin University baseball. Outfield Design The outfield is designed for multi-use and can accommodate a foot long practice soccer field and a foot long practice football field.

AstroTurf Synthetic all-weather turf and subbase is designed to drain no less than an average of 30 inches of rain per hour.

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