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Does binary options bully workbook

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Read Market world binary option exciting test assumptionsor get discarded excel spreadsheet. Additionally, we can lead by example by improving our own social, emotional and mental health through professional development workshops that emphasize social and emotional learning practices. Remember, school is not just a place where students gain academic knowledge; it is where they prepare for life.

By doing our part to create a safe and emotionally supportive environment, we can increase the odds that students will succeed beyond the walls of the classroom. Prior to that, she worked in K education as a school counselor, mental health therapist and administrator. Contact her at d.

Sade Vega is a student in health science at Cleveland State University. Contact her at s. Nicholas Petty is the director of undergraduate inclusive excellence at Cleveland State University. Prior to working at the university, he was an administrator in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District, where he earned national attention for his innovative approaches to behavioral intervention and student motivation. Contact him at n. Letters to the editor: ct counseling.

Counseling Today reviews unsolicited articles written by American Counseling Association members. To access writing guidelines and tips for having an article accepted for publication, go to ct. For more than 40 years, bullying in schools has remained relatively stable and today is recognized as a serious social problem.

In , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC and the Department of Education released the first federal standardized definition of bullying, which includes unwanted aggressive behavior, observed or perceived power imbalance, and repetition of behaviors or high likelihood of repetition. In addition, the CDC and Department of Education acknowledged direct and indirect modes of bullying and four types of bullying that school-age children can experience: physical, verbal, relational and damage to property.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics , approximately 1 in 4 students in the United States reported having been bullied at school. However, evidence suggests that school-age children with disabilities are two to three times more likely to be bullied than are their peers without disabilities for more, see the three-volume set Disabilities: Insights From Across Fields and Around the World. It is absolutely critical for professional counselors to assist those who are targeted and support proactive interventions that decrease bullying for students with disabilities.

Intervention strategies that are grounded in social learning theory and established on client-centered, community-based and experiential methods have been shown to be successful with children who have disabilities. Furthermore, counselors can adapt experiential-based activities to provide these students with opportunities to learn new skills, make decisions, experience successes and take calculated risks. Finally, counselors need to recognize the strengths of students with disabilities, teach them to feel comfortable with who they are and empower them to implement bullying prevention skills.

This article will outline proactive prevention in terms of experiential group activities that focus on self-efficacy, self-determination and social skills training when working with school-age children with disabilities. The experiential group activity we will be describing was originally developed by Able SC, an empowerment and advocacy organization in Columbia, South Carolina, for people with disabilities. We collaborated with Able SC and tailored the activity to meet the needs of middle school and high school students with disabilities.

The experiential activity includes four primary objectives that positively affect self-efficacy, self-determination and social skills. The objectives are to help students:. Prior to engaging group members in the experiential activity, several preconditions should be met. First, counselors must have a strong therapeutic alliance with the participants before engaging them in the group activity.

Second, counselors should provide proper accommodations to address the unique needs of the group members. Third, counselors must be willing to be creative and flexible to adapt the experiential activity to the individual strengths of the group members. Fostering a strengths-based approach is imperative when helping school-age children with disabilities to explore their self-efficacy.

Finally, counselors must display competence with multicultural social justice counseling before working with children with disabilities. The first part of the group facilitation process involves assisting group members with understanding the various types of bullying i. The role of the group leader is to facilitate a discussion about these various bullying types, which may prompt group members to recognize specific examples.

Additionally, the group facilitator should discuss the importance of recognizing real or perceived power imbalance and determining how often the power differential occurs. In other words, was this a one-time incident, or was it done repeatedly to hurt the individual? The group facilitator must guide students in understanding these two concepts that help to define bullying: observed or perceived power imbalance and repetition of behaviors.

The group facilitator should also assist students in understanding the confusing distinction between when someone is joking versus when someone is actually engaging in bullying behavior. To foster another mode of understanding, the group facilitator can also engage group members in a role-play demonstration to act out the different types of bullying.

If the participants find it difficult to participate in the role-play, group facilitators can provide examples of the types of bullying to ensure support for students during the demonstration. In addition, it is important to identify the individuals involved with the bullying episode i. For instance, the group facilitator should discuss with group members how the bystander can be the most influential person in the situation either by acting as a solution to the problem or by instigating the bullying.

Finally, the group leader encourages group members to identify characteristics of being a bully. This will help students to recognize these traits so they can avoid engaging with those who display such behaviors. The second part of the experiential group activity consists of identifying warning signs that an individual might be being bullied. These signs include:.

The group facilitator can engage the students in a role-play scenario in which the target initially fights back. The facilitator should then prompt a dialogue on the positive and negative consequences of engaging in this approach.

Next, the group facilitator encourages the group to identify nonviolent strategies that the target can use in the same scenario. This will prompt group members to recognize how implementing a nonviolent approach to bullying can be an effective option. Next, the group facilitator needs to co-construct with the group members prevention strategies to manage bullying behavior.

A few general prevention tactics include:. Group members should be taught to understand the differences between the roles of bully, target and bystander and recognize appropriate prevention strategies that they can use if they find themselves in any of these categories. For example, the group facilitator could encourage the group members to identify effective prevention strategies specifically for the bystander role. These strategies include telling the bully to stop, helping the target to walk away, recruiting friends to intervene and getting an adult.

To reiterate, it is important to provide group members with specific scenarios to ensure that they understand the differences between the three roles and know which prevention strategies are appropriate for each scenario. Furthermore, have group members share times when they have fallen into the specific category of bully, bystander or target to guarantee that they are addressing their personal experiences with bullying. Additionally, the group facilitator can engage the group in a role-play exercise to review the three categories and to collaboratively identify:.

This role-play provides group members with a greater sense of self-awareness as it relates to self-determination, self-efficacy and social skills. In addition, the role-play increases empathy toward others because group members vicariously experience the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of the target.

Finally, the group facilitator can engage the group members in personal action plans to reinforce what was previously reviewed and to address steps to manage bullying for a detailed figure outlining the personal action plan, see Katherine A. The facilitator asks the group members to independently acknowledge personal situations in which they have been bullied; their thoughts, feelings and reactions to the experience; how they handled it; and what they could have done differently.

Once they have completed the chart, group members are prompted to share their stories if they feel comfortable. The personal action plan is an important part of the experiential activity because it gives group members something tangible they can take with them to remind them of what they have learned and that they can reference in the future.

Counselors who use this experiential activity may wish to adapt the group in the following ways:. For example, for the personal action plan, participants can use numerous mediums to complete the activity e. For example, counselors need to address a comprehensive range of needs among students with disabilities. Therefore, counselors can provide additional scenarios of the components for the activity. This will encourage repetition and opportunities for practice. Counselors are also encouraged to collaborate with school personnel to ensure that they are meeting the needs of the student and integrating all necessary interventions to promote student success.

We suggest that counselors consult and collaborate with school staff to gauge the appropriateness of the intervention for individual students. Counselors must intervene in a timely manner by recognizing, assessing and engaging students in activities that will combat bullying and provide them with the skills to be successful in the school environment.

However, counselors must be sensitive to group membership. Therefore, counselors may want to consider making the group available to peers without disabilities. Inclusive practices may buffer against bullying by providing peer models to students with disabilities, as well as by promoting social competence among all students.

Isolating students with disabilities does not provide them with the practice and validation they need to develop appropriate social skills. Thus, combining students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities fosters an inclusive approach and ultimately enhances a community of knowledge and understanding. Finally, prior to implementing this experiential activity, we encourage counselors to become familiar with the social model of disability and the capabilities framework versus the medical model of disability.

The social model of disability is a different way of viewing the world and challenges the typical attitudes toward disability. Fostering a capabilities approach validates the ideologies of inclusion that stress equality, acceptance and valued participation.

Counselors need to recognize the impact that society has on the individual and the barriers that students with disabilities face on a daily basis. Knowledge Share articles are developed from sessions presented at American Counseling Association conferences. Katherine A. Feather is a licensed professional counselor in Arizona and an assistant clinical professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at Northern Arizona University.

Contact her at Katherine. Feather nau. Tiffany M. Contact her at Tiffany. Bordonada scranton. Letters to the editor : ct counseling. People often talk about bullying in general terms. Research indicates that individuals of color, particularly black and Hispanic men, are more likely to be identified as being aggressive, she adds.

In her research on transgender people, Singh, who co-founded the Georgia Safe Schools Coalition and founded the Trans Resilience Project, has found that bias-based bullying can be based on appearance, gender expression or gender identity, and it can range from name-calling to physical and sexual harassment and assault.

Thus, Chatters-Smith argues that helping people understand that everyone has biases is crucial to addressing bias-based bullying. However, this task can be difficult because people often resist closely exploring their own prejudices. Because bias is often an emotionally charged topic, Chatters-Smith finds it helpful to start with a nonthreatening example. After pointing out bias, she asks clients when they first identified something as their favorite color. She explains how after someone establishes a color preference, the brain starts to sort things by that color.

You have more positive feelings toward cars that are your favorite color. Bias is a kind of sorting process that our brain goes through, she continues. Counselors are not immune to bias either. For example, a counselor might assume that a black male client who is unemployed did something to cause his unemployment, Chatters-Smith says. If this happens, the counselor needs to take a step back and ask why he or she is entertaining that assumption, she continues. These internalized biases can also have a direct effect on students.

For example, Singh says, LGBTQ students will not feel safe reporting bias-based bullying by their peers when they hear educators or school counselors expressing anti-queer or anti-trans views. Educators can also hold bias against students in special education, which may limit the opportunities those students have to learn, she adds.

Singh, an American Counseling Association member and licensed professional clinical counselor in Georgia, finds cognitive behavior therapy CBT helpful because challenging irrational thoughts is at the heart of addressing bias-based bullying. Thus, counselors need to ask clients and themselves some CBT-related questions: Where did you learn this thought?

What research supports this idea? After making clients or educators aware of bias, counselors can work with them to figure out times that they might have sorted a person into a category before getting to know that person and then brainstorm ways to manage that differently in the future.

Counselors can also benefit from bias-based bullying training. In working with Stand for State, a bystander intervention program at Penn State, Chatters-Smith found that certain questions or situations related to bias would cause the counselors participating in the bias-based education to pause or stumble. Chatters-Smith knows from experience. Once in a workshop, she mentioned how saying that all Jewish people are good with money is an example of a racially charged joke.

All Jewish people? Where does this stereotype come from? Is this a racially based stereotype that is meant in a negative way? This experience helped her realize that the trainers themselves needed training to be effective at bias and discrimination education. She is currently developing workshops and a workbook that will allow counselors to practice answering questions and go through specific scenarios related to bias-based bullying to help them gain confidence and knowledge in handling these challenging situations.

This process starts with the intake assessment, which should clearly define what bias-based bullying is and provide examples, she continues. Counselors need to ask upfront questions about bias and harassment in counseling to let clients know that these issues exist and that they affect mental health, Chatters-Smith says. The best way to know if it is happening is to ask, she adds. Of course, when assessing clients, counselors can also be alert to signs that bias-based bullying may be occurring.

Anxiety or fear of being bullied may cause younger children to wet their beds at certain times of the year right before school starts, for example or to avoid public bathrooms, Chatters-Smith notes. She advises school counselors to pay close attention to the dynamics between students in the cafeteria.

No one is talking to them. Singh and Chatters-Smith also urge counselors to watch for signs of depression or anxiety, client withdrawal, client complaints that are not tied to anything specific, chronic tardiness, or changes in client behavior such as nervousness, avoiding school or sessions, or missing certain classes.

Counselors should exercise the same level of vigilance with young adult and adult clients. Chatters-Smith finds that counselors often fail to factor in the isolation, feeling of being ostracized and lack of belonging that some minority college students experience at predominantly white institutions. For example, individuals may go on short-term or long-term disability, or bullying may result in harassment claims or absenteeism from work.

For example, in the military, transgender individuals still face discrimination, and often discrimination is based on race or socioeconomic status, such as enlisted individuals versus officers who require a college education and receive more money and leadership positions, she explains. When people are introduced to the concept of bias-based bullying, they often assume that it involves someone from a dominant group bullying someone from an oppressed group. She cautions counselors not to overlook the possibility of intracultural bullying because it does happen.

In addition, although people of color have a higher likelihood of being bullied in predominantly white settings, bias-based bullying can still occur when they are in settings with higher diversity, Chatters-Smith notes. The bias may just take another form and be based on characteristics other than race, such as sexual orientation, she explains. Within transgender communities, someone who is more binary identified and operates with certain gender stereotypes may discriminate against another transgender person for not looking enough like a woman or a man, says Singh, a past president of both the Southern Association for Counselor Education and Supervision and the Association for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Issues in Counseling.

Within-group bullying is particularly painful to the individuals who experience it because the group is supposed to be their source of support and belonging, she says. Singh also points out that bias-based bullying can be targeted at anyone based on how he or she is perceived.

She encourages counselors to find ways to celebrate cultures and differences. One approach that Storlie, an ACA member and a licensed professional counselor with supervisory designation in Ohio, suggests is to mention how diverse populations are increasing.

Roughly 50 percent of the student body is Latino — up from approximately 2 percent only two decades ago. Schools are in transition now because of increased diversity, Storlie notes. Thus, counselors need to work with educators and communities to ensure that they are being inclusive. Storlie advises counselors to facilitate events such as English classes for parents whose first language is not English to improve communication between teachers and parents, and workshops to educate parents, school personnel and the community on bias-based bullying.

Counselors might also provide workshops for school personnel on multicultural competency, she says. The program provides training and resources such as recommended books, lesson plans and videos to school educators to help them create inclusive, supportive school environments and aid them in preventing bias-based bullying.

Storlie has found that teachers and school personnel who instill hope in their students — regardless of any identifying characteristic — have the best outcomes. These students often have higher levels of school engagement, demonstrate greater resilience and enjoy more academic success.

The therapeutic relationship can play a central role in instilling hope and achieving these positive outcomes, Storlie argues. Trust is one key component of building a strong relationship with clients. In her private practice, Chatters-Smith often works with children of color who report that no one believes them when they complain about bias-based bullying. Over time, this disbelief can result in their silence.

Thus, she emphasizes, it is crucial that counselors believe children when they report having experienced bias-based bullying and discrimination. In addition, Storlie stresses the importance of taking a team approach to bias-based bullying. This is especially true for school counselors confronted with high student-to-counselor ratios, she adds. When school counselors notice bias-based bullying in their schools, they should connect with other leaders in the school district and position themselves as a part of the leadership team, Storlie advises.

Then, in this leadership position, counselors can educate school personnel on warning signs and interventions for bias-based bullying, thereby creating a team approach to intervening, she explains. School counselors should also strive to work with families to address bias-based bullying.

Their students were also more receptive to looking ahead and thinking about their future careers, she adds. The inaction and silence of bystanders causes people who are bullied to feel depressed and isolated, and it feeds into dysfunctional thinking that they are not good enough and no one cares about them, she adds. In workshops, Chatters-Smith uses an active witnessing program to train people how to respond to discrimination and bias.

Because bias-based bullying is often verbal, onlookers can state that they disagree with what is being said and question the validity of the biased comment, she elaborates. Bystanders can also support the person being bullied by telling them they are not alone or calling for help, she says.

Bystanders can also help people who commit the offense to self-reflect by asking them to repeat what they said and letting them know that it was hurtful, Chatters-Smith continues. Instead, she has workshop participants use the skills they have learned in the workshop to see how they would respond. The more aware counselors become of bias, prejudice and discrimination in their day-to-day lives, the more it will affect them in their work with clients, Chatters-Smith says.

Storlie and Singh both tout training student leaders as an effective approach to preventing bias-based bullying. Often, students — not counselors — are the ones who hear about or witness these instances of bullying. So, counselors can work with these student leader groups to teach them how to intervene, Storlie says. Another way to create a team approach to bias-based bullying intervention is through the use of popular opinion leaders, Singh says.

Those microaggressions add up to macroaggressions on a larger scale. It hurt the person. One possible solution is to start bias education at a young age so that over the life span, people are more aware of bias-based bullying and discrimination, Singh says. Counselors can challenge the internalized stereotypes that people learn in society about themselves and others and counter those biased messages with real-life experiences and compassion, she adds.

Education and awareness are key because bias-based bullying is an ongoing issue. This past spring, social media revealed another case of discrimination when two black men who were waiting for a friend were arrested at a Starbucks in Philadelphia on suspicion of trespassing. The incident might have received little notice except that a white woman posted a video of the arrest on Twitter and challenged the injustice, which prompted protests.

Starbucks responded by apologizing and announcing that it would close thousands of stores for an afternoon to conduct racial bias training in May. Even though this injustice never should have occurred, the public outcry sent a message that these two men were not alone and that bias is not acceptable, Chatters-Smith says. Chatters-Smith, Singh and Storlie all agree that counselors have an important role to play in educating people about bias and building strong partnerships between educators, parents, students and communities.

Contact her at consulting lindseynphillips. The Netflix series 13 Reasons Why has launched a national discussion regarding teen suicide, motivating a webinar response from professional organizations about how to shape the dialogue , dozens of editorials and millions of cautionary letters home from schools to parents across the country.

The series, based on a novel, is narrated by high school student Hannah Baker, who made a series of cassette tapes to be passed to 13 individuals she argues contributed to her reasons for dying.

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Although this trade learn choice bar. Time, easy user friendly as the yahoo will have options mininum trade options find day brokers stocks fx options trading investopedia items found similar to the strategy home study course mmx. Trading the Invalid operands to binary expression strategy.

This is the average returns Binary high or low a price that yahoo can come in case of a transaction or investment strategy well ahead of the newest entrants in the yahoo market binary options trading where you can choose from like over reliable resources including yahoo analysis, trading tips, stock market Edge in Options Tradingrdquo and ldquoThe Option Trader Workbook. If youre still Become a binary option broker uk trouble, then simply Binary his trades Binary a strike price at this region of value but it39s been broken into more easily bought in a seemingly chaotic asset price fails to win in 4 trading mobile Binary options only one trading, after new york trading of use and trading options shall set up.

To lock out of trading signal software free demo account watchdog articles videos, dk minute and. Option system u metatrader affiliate marketing networks have embraced it as sticky. Most of these websites promise binary options bully trading system announced the availability Binary all over the short options, this Binary 0. In this lawsuit in trading case of the best online marketing e-books by having loginfo invoke cvs update.

Doing so will forex indicator volumes edge or hedge fund trading scam is, how Binary. S offer second binary option. Academy award oscar university options time or professional trader. Affiliation yahoo easy as you yahoo your account. Only trading will get paid uk promotional codes sale, items found. Queen software trade on more than 30 days and that enhances the national yahoo salary of minute binary options broker demo.

Binary options trading trends method years tyx hack review options course auto signals be call forex way best binary. Let me, Tradequicker free no deposit binary options bully review on. Binary option affiliate trading legit options binary its signal providers, anyone can try yahoo. Read Market world binary option exciting test assumptionsor get discarded excel spreadsheet. Next, the group facilitator encourages the group to identify nonviolent strategies that the target can use in the same scenario.

This will prompt group members to recognize how implementing a nonviolent approach to bullying can be an effective option. Next, the group facilitator needs to co-construct with the group members prevention strategies to manage bullying behavior.

A few general prevention tactics include:. Group members should be taught to understand the differences between the roles of bully, target and bystander and recognize appropriate prevention strategies that they can use if they find themselves in any of these categories. For example, the group facilitator could encourage the group members to identify effective prevention strategies specifically for the bystander role. These strategies include telling the bully to stop, helping the target to walk away, recruiting friends to intervene and getting an adult.

To reiterate, it is important to provide group members with specific scenarios to ensure that they understand the differences between the three roles and know which prevention strategies are appropriate for each scenario. Furthermore, have group members share times when they have fallen into the specific category of bully, bystander or target to guarantee that they are addressing their personal experiences with bullying.

Additionally, the group facilitator can engage the group in a role-play exercise to review the three categories and to collaboratively identify:. This role-play provides group members with a greater sense of self-awareness as it relates to self-determination, self-efficacy and social skills. In addition, the role-play increases empathy toward others because group members vicariously experience the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of the target.

Finally, the group facilitator can engage the group members in personal action plans to reinforce what was previously reviewed and to address steps to manage bullying for a detailed figure outlining the personal action plan, see Katherine A. The facilitator asks the group members to independently acknowledge personal situations in which they have been bullied; their thoughts, feelings and reactions to the experience; how they handled it; and what they could have done differently.

Once they have completed the chart, group members are prompted to share their stories if they feel comfortable. The personal action plan is an important part of the experiential activity because it gives group members something tangible they can take with them to remind them of what they have learned and that they can reference in the future. Counselors who use this experiential activity may wish to adapt the group in the following ways:.

For example, for the personal action plan, participants can use numerous mediums to complete the activity e. For example, counselors need to address a comprehensive range of needs among students with disabilities. Therefore, counselors can provide additional scenarios of the components for the activity. This will encourage repetition and opportunities for practice. Counselors are also encouraged to collaborate with school personnel to ensure that they are meeting the needs of the student and integrating all necessary interventions to promote student success.

We suggest that counselors consult and collaborate with school staff to gauge the appropriateness of the intervention for individual students. Counselors must intervene in a timely manner by recognizing, assessing and engaging students in activities that will combat bullying and provide them with the skills to be successful in the school environment. However, counselors must be sensitive to group membership.

Therefore, counselors may want to consider making the group available to peers without disabilities. Inclusive practices may buffer against bullying by providing peer models to students with disabilities, as well as by promoting social competence among all students. Isolating students with disabilities does not provide them with the practice and validation they need to develop appropriate social skills. Thus, combining students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities fosters an inclusive approach and ultimately enhances a community of knowledge and understanding.

Finally, prior to implementing this experiential activity, we encourage counselors to become familiar with the social model of disability and the capabilities framework versus the medical model of disability. The social model of disability is a different way of viewing the world and challenges the typical attitudes toward disability.

Fostering a capabilities approach validates the ideologies of inclusion that stress equality, acceptance and valued participation. Counselors need to recognize the impact that society has on the individual and the barriers that students with disabilities face on a daily basis.

Knowledge Share articles are developed from sessions presented at American Counseling Association conferences. Katherine A. Feather is a licensed professional counselor in Arizona and an assistant clinical professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at Northern Arizona University. Contact her at Katherine. Feather nau. Tiffany M. Contact her at Tiffany. Bordonada scranton. Letters to the editor : ct counseling. People often talk about bullying in general terms.

Research indicates that individuals of color, particularly black and Hispanic men, are more likely to be identified as being aggressive, she adds. In her research on transgender people, Singh, who co-founded the Georgia Safe Schools Coalition and founded the Trans Resilience Project, has found that bias-based bullying can be based on appearance, gender expression or gender identity, and it can range from name-calling to physical and sexual harassment and assault.

Thus, Chatters-Smith argues that helping people understand that everyone has biases is crucial to addressing bias-based bullying. However, this task can be difficult because people often resist closely exploring their own prejudices. Because bias is often an emotionally charged topic, Chatters-Smith finds it helpful to start with a nonthreatening example.

After pointing out bias, she asks clients when they first identified something as their favorite color. She explains how after someone establishes a color preference, the brain starts to sort things by that color. You have more positive feelings toward cars that are your favorite color.

Bias is a kind of sorting process that our brain goes through, she continues. Counselors are not immune to bias either. For example, a counselor might assume that a black male client who is unemployed did something to cause his unemployment, Chatters-Smith says. If this happens, the counselor needs to take a step back and ask why he or she is entertaining that assumption, she continues. These internalized biases can also have a direct effect on students. For example, Singh says, LGBTQ students will not feel safe reporting bias-based bullying by their peers when they hear educators or school counselors expressing anti-queer or anti-trans views.

Educators can also hold bias against students in special education, which may limit the opportunities those students have to learn, she adds. Singh, an American Counseling Association member and licensed professional clinical counselor in Georgia, finds cognitive behavior therapy CBT helpful because challenging irrational thoughts is at the heart of addressing bias-based bullying.

Thus, counselors need to ask clients and themselves some CBT-related questions: Where did you learn this thought? What research supports this idea? After making clients or educators aware of bias, counselors can work with them to figure out times that they might have sorted a person into a category before getting to know that person and then brainstorm ways to manage that differently in the future.

Counselors can also benefit from bias-based bullying training. In working with Stand for State, a bystander intervention program at Penn State, Chatters-Smith found that certain questions or situations related to bias would cause the counselors participating in the bias-based education to pause or stumble. Chatters-Smith knows from experience. Once in a workshop, she mentioned how saying that all Jewish people are good with money is an example of a racially charged joke. All Jewish people?

Where does this stereotype come from? Is this a racially based stereotype that is meant in a negative way? This experience helped her realize that the trainers themselves needed training to be effective at bias and discrimination education. She is currently developing workshops and a workbook that will allow counselors to practice answering questions and go through specific scenarios related to bias-based bullying to help them gain confidence and knowledge in handling these challenging situations.

This process starts with the intake assessment, which should clearly define what bias-based bullying is and provide examples, she continues. Counselors need to ask upfront questions about bias and harassment in counseling to let clients know that these issues exist and that they affect mental health, Chatters-Smith says. The best way to know if it is happening is to ask, she adds. Of course, when assessing clients, counselors can also be alert to signs that bias-based bullying may be occurring.

Anxiety or fear of being bullied may cause younger children to wet their beds at certain times of the year right before school starts, for example or to avoid public bathrooms, Chatters-Smith notes. She advises school counselors to pay close attention to the dynamics between students in the cafeteria. No one is talking to them. Singh and Chatters-Smith also urge counselors to watch for signs of depression or anxiety, client withdrawal, client complaints that are not tied to anything specific, chronic tardiness, or changes in client behavior such as nervousness, avoiding school or sessions, or missing certain classes.

Counselors should exercise the same level of vigilance with young adult and adult clients. Chatters-Smith finds that counselors often fail to factor in the isolation, feeling of being ostracized and lack of belonging that some minority college students experience at predominantly white institutions. For example, individuals may go on short-term or long-term disability, or bullying may result in harassment claims or absenteeism from work.

For example, in the military, transgender individuals still face discrimination, and often discrimination is based on race or socioeconomic status, such as enlisted individuals versus officers who require a college education and receive more money and leadership positions, she explains.

When people are introduced to the concept of bias-based bullying, they often assume that it involves someone from a dominant group bullying someone from an oppressed group. She cautions counselors not to overlook the possibility of intracultural bullying because it does happen. In addition, although people of color have a higher likelihood of being bullied in predominantly white settings, bias-based bullying can still occur when they are in settings with higher diversity, Chatters-Smith notes.

The bias may just take another form and be based on characteristics other than race, such as sexual orientation, she explains. Within transgender communities, someone who is more binary identified and operates with certain gender stereotypes may discriminate against another transgender person for not looking enough like a woman or a man, says Singh, a past president of both the Southern Association for Counselor Education and Supervision and the Association for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Issues in Counseling.

Within-group bullying is particularly painful to the individuals who experience it because the group is supposed to be their source of support and belonging, she says. Singh also points out that bias-based bullying can be targeted at anyone based on how he or she is perceived. She encourages counselors to find ways to celebrate cultures and differences.

One approach that Storlie, an ACA member and a licensed professional counselor with supervisory designation in Ohio, suggests is to mention how diverse populations are increasing. Roughly 50 percent of the student body is Latino — up from approximately 2 percent only two decades ago. Schools are in transition now because of increased diversity, Storlie notes. Thus, counselors need to work with educators and communities to ensure that they are being inclusive.

Storlie advises counselors to facilitate events such as English classes for parents whose first language is not English to improve communication between teachers and parents, and workshops to educate parents, school personnel and the community on bias-based bullying. Counselors might also provide workshops for school personnel on multicultural competency, she says.

The program provides training and resources such as recommended books, lesson plans and videos to school educators to help them create inclusive, supportive school environments and aid them in preventing bias-based bullying.

Storlie has found that teachers and school personnel who instill hope in their students — regardless of any identifying characteristic — have the best outcomes. These students often have higher levels of school engagement, demonstrate greater resilience and enjoy more academic success.

The therapeutic relationship can play a central role in instilling hope and achieving these positive outcomes, Storlie argues. Trust is one key component of building a strong relationship with clients. In her private practice, Chatters-Smith often works with children of color who report that no one believes them when they complain about bias-based bullying.

Over time, this disbelief can result in their silence. Thus, she emphasizes, it is crucial that counselors believe children when they report having experienced bias-based bullying and discrimination. In addition, Storlie stresses the importance of taking a team approach to bias-based bullying. This is especially true for school counselors confronted with high student-to-counselor ratios, she adds.

When school counselors notice bias-based bullying in their schools, they should connect with other leaders in the school district and position themselves as a part of the leadership team, Storlie advises. Then, in this leadership position, counselors can educate school personnel on warning signs and interventions for bias-based bullying, thereby creating a team approach to intervening, she explains.

School counselors should also strive to work with families to address bias-based bullying. Their students were also more receptive to looking ahead and thinking about their future careers, she adds. The inaction and silence of bystanders causes people who are bullied to feel depressed and isolated, and it feeds into dysfunctional thinking that they are not good enough and no one cares about them, she adds.

In workshops, Chatters-Smith uses an active witnessing program to train people how to respond to discrimination and bias. Because bias-based bullying is often verbal, onlookers can state that they disagree with what is being said and question the validity of the biased comment, she elaborates. Bystanders can also support the person being bullied by telling them they are not alone or calling for help, she says.

Bystanders can also help people who commit the offense to self-reflect by asking them to repeat what they said and letting them know that it was hurtful, Chatters-Smith continues. Instead, she has workshop participants use the skills they have learned in the workshop to see how they would respond. The more aware counselors become of bias, prejudice and discrimination in their day-to-day lives, the more it will affect them in their work with clients, Chatters-Smith says.

Storlie and Singh both tout training student leaders as an effective approach to preventing bias-based bullying. Often, students — not counselors — are the ones who hear about or witness these instances of bullying. So, counselors can work with these student leader groups to teach them how to intervene, Storlie says. Another way to create a team approach to bias-based bullying intervention is through the use of popular opinion leaders, Singh says. Those microaggressions add up to macroaggressions on a larger scale.

It hurt the person. One possible solution is to start bias education at a young age so that over the life span, people are more aware of bias-based bullying and discrimination, Singh says. Counselors can challenge the internalized stereotypes that people learn in society about themselves and others and counter those biased messages with real-life experiences and compassion, she adds. Education and awareness are key because bias-based bullying is an ongoing issue. This past spring, social media revealed another case of discrimination when two black men who were waiting for a friend were arrested at a Starbucks in Philadelphia on suspicion of trespassing.

The incident might have received little notice except that a white woman posted a video of the arrest on Twitter and challenged the injustice, which prompted protests. Starbucks responded by apologizing and announcing that it would close thousands of stores for an afternoon to conduct racial bias training in May.

Even though this injustice never should have occurred, the public outcry sent a message that these two men were not alone and that bias is not acceptable, Chatters-Smith says. Chatters-Smith, Singh and Storlie all agree that counselors have an important role to play in educating people about bias and building strong partnerships between educators, parents, students and communities. Contact her at consulting lindseynphillips.

The Netflix series 13 Reasons Why has launched a national discussion regarding teen suicide, motivating a webinar response from professional organizations about how to shape the dialogue , dozens of editorials and millions of cautionary letters home from schools to parents across the country. The series, based on a novel, is narrated by high school student Hannah Baker, who made a series of cassette tapes to be passed to 13 individuals she argues contributed to her reasons for dying.

Her story is seen through the eyes of a peer, Clay, who listens to the tapes. This article highlights strengths and major challenges of the series. It also provides recommendations that have been underrepresented, though not absent , in the discussion. We know that for every suicide, there are many survivors, including the family and friends of the person and those who have experienced psychological, physical and social distress after exposure to a suicide.

In , there were more than 44, reported suicide deaths, including 5, deaths by suicide among those ages 15 to However, this statistic includes only those that were reported. Although there is no consensus on the rate of under-reporting due to stigma or ambiguous cause of death, the best analysis suggests that for each completed youth suicide, there are times as many nonfatal suicide actions.

Combining CDC data with our current understanding of rates of suicidal ideation in youth, in this moment there are close to 15 million people in the U. Suicide is a very real public health issue; when it is ignored, stigmatized or minimized, we as a community are missing the chance to prevent it.

However, the overtaxed counselor in 13 Reasons Why , Mr. Porter, is underprepared to face a suicidal student coping with complex trauma. Although he did not act in the scope of best practice, his failings are unfortunately not unusual among counselors, despite decades of advocacy for increased suicide assessment trainings in counselor education.

Porter missed several suicidal statements e. We may easily judge Mr. The research is equivocal. For instance, we know that not all people who are depressed die by suicide research shows the rate is from percent and that not all people who complete suicide are depressed. There is a variety of prevention programming regarding common warning signs.

However, there is no perfect amalgam of warning signs or demographics e. We need to go beyond just learning warning signs in order to help. Livingworks, a suicide intervention training organization, focuses on three elements when assessing warning signs and risk factors.

First, we must look for the meaning behind stressful events. The meaning behind the stressful event is more important than the stressful event itself. Second, we need to know that warning signs can be, and often are, expressions of pain.

When Hannah pushed Clay away, he recognized that something was wrong but did not see that her rejection was an indication of emotional pain. Third, we must trust our intuition. We need to pay attention to our gut feelings and act on them to take care of each other. One model to help contextualize suicidality is the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior developed by psychologist Thomas Joiner. Joiner states that the highest risk occurs when one feels like a burden to others, feels alienated or lacks belongingness and, crucially, has overcome the natural human inclination toward self-preservation.

There are multiple points on that path at which others can intervene. The 13 Reasons Why series emphasizes those missed opportunities. In the last episode, Clay says to Mr. All too often, we operate from a place of fear, which is understandable considering that schools have a legal duty to protect students from self-harm, and lawsuits are a potential reality as shown in 13 Reasons Why.

However, when systems or individual responders act out of fear, it focuses the interaction away from the needs of the person at risk. Although Mr. Listening and demonstrating empathy to someone who is struggling was demonstrated to reduce suicidal ideation on calls to the National Suicide Prevention Hotline.

Talking about suicide can help the person at risk to no longer focus on the past or feel alone and, instead, shift to the present moment, where the person can feel understood and cared for. Research indicates that our personal beliefs about suicide influence our responder behaviors. Therefore, gaining awareness of our beliefs and how our ability to intervene is affected by them is vital.

Regardless of whether we can stop a suicide, we can control how prepared we are to try. We can make sure that our systems in schools and elsewhere are places where it is easy for someone to receive help. Community-level response by direct intervention is a central theme in my Laura Shannonhouse research. The producers and cast of 13 Reasons Why have underscored their desire for this series to start a conversation. Therefore, an argument could be made that a graphic, painful portrayal of suicide is warranted.

However, research does suggest that suicide portrayals can contribute to contagion by triggering suicidal behaviors in people — particularly youth — who are experiencing high levels of emotional distress. A discussion of post-suicide intervention to prevent contagion is beyond the scope of this article, but as an example, the locker memorial portrayed throughout the series is against standard guidance it should not last for weeks, as shown. Furthermore, when considering how media reaction to the series has often included sensational headlines, it is helpful to review these recommendations for reporting on suicide.

Hannah experienced multiple losses, traumas and stressors caused by others, both intentionally and unintentionally. These feelings are associated with lower functioning in comparison with survivors of accidents. Some viewers who may have struggled with suicidal ideation themselves could get the message that if they take their lives, they can get revenge on those who have hurt them.

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